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Desecration of Holy Ka’ba

The Deobandi Sect of Sunnis believe that:

“The part of the earth which is touched by the blessed limbs of the Holy Prophet (ﷺ) is absolutely most supreme, even to the extent that it is superior to the Ka’ba and the Throne and the Chair (of Allah).”

I – The declared belief of Deobandi Sunnis

The abovementioned statement is written in these words clarifying Deobandi beliefs in their book called ‘اَلْمُھَنَّدُ عَلَی الْمُفَنَّدِ’ ‘al-muhannad ‘ala al-mufannad’ as a reply to the book by Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi called ‘حُسّامُ الحَرَمَیْن علی منحر الکفر والمین’ ‘Hassam ul harmain ‘ala manharil Kufr walmain’. The Deobandi book of beliefs has been endorsed and stamped by Deobandi stalwart scholars and founders of this school of thought which includes Khalil Ahmed Saharanpuri (author of this book), Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Mufti Kifayatullah, and scores of others.

Whoever has the slightest respect for Allah Ta’ala in his heart will immediately reject this false belief. But there is no dignity of the Creator in the hearts of these sectarian ulema who make loud claims of monotheism. Are these people unfamiliar with this command of Allah?

مَالَکُمْ لاَ تَرْجُوْنَ لِلَّه وَقَارًا

 (نوح: 13)

What is [the matter] with you that you do not attribute to Allah [due] grandeur

In this belief, while reducing the greatness and exaltation of the Allah Ta’ala, the Prophet (ﷺ) is given precedence over Him in clear words. The slave is presented as more respectable than Allah, the creature is superior to his Creator. What is attributed to the Prophet (ﷺ) is considered superior to what is attributed to Allah Ta’ala.

II – The dignified status of Ka’ba

However, what to talk of anything being superior to Allah, there is nothing at all which could be even equated with Him. And this is the demand of the belief of Unicity and Uniqueness of Allah Ta’ala:

لِلَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤْمِنُوۡنَ بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ مَثَلُ السَّوْءِ ۚ وَ لِلہِ الْمَثَلُ الۡاَعْلٰی ؕ وَہُوَ الْعَزِیۡزُ الْحَکِیۡمُ  

    (النحل: 60)

 For those who do not believe in the Hereafter is the example of evil; and for Allah is the highest example. And He is Exalted in Might, the Wise.

لَمْ  یَکُنْ لَّہٗ کُفُوًا  اَحَدٌ 

(الاخلاص :4)

Nor is there to Him any single equivalent

…ھَلْ تَعْلَمُ لَہ’ سَمِیًّا

(مریم :65)

… Do you know of any similarity to Him?

 …لَیۡسَ کَمِثْلِہٖ شَیۡءٌ ۚ

(الشوریٰ :11)

… There is nothing like Him,

Now see the statement of Allah Ta’ala regarding the value of the Ka’ba:

اِنَّ اَوَّلَ بَیْتٍ وُّضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِیْ بِبَکَّۃَ مُبٰرَکاً وَّ ھُدًی لِّلْعٰلَمِیْنَ

 (آل عمران :96)

Indeed, the first House [of worship] established for mankind was that at Makkah – blessed and a guidance for the worlds

جَعَلَ اللہُ  الْکَعْبَۃَ  الْبَیْتَ الْحَرَامَ  قِیٰمًا لِّلنَّاسِ   …

(المائدۃ :97)

Allah has made Ka’ba, the Sacred House, for standing (during prayer) of the people … 

This is the house of honor and dignity which Adam () built initially, then the Prophet’s (ﷺ) great ancestors Ibrahim and Ismail () built it.  This is the house facing which the duty of Salat was ordered to be performed, and facing towards it became mandatory condition for acceptance of Salat. This is the building without tawaf (circumambulation) of which, the noble worship like Hajj is not accepted.

Our Prophet () and other Prophets () circumambulated it. Where one salat (prayer) offered is better (in reward) than hundred salat in the Prophet’s Mosque and more than one hundred thousand salat of other mosques. But in the eyes of the cultists (firqua ulema), it probably doesn’t matter. The Ka’ba is one of the most sacred places on the earth whose desecration is disbelief and reverence is piety.

یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تُحِلُّوۡا شَعَآئِرَ اللہِ …

 (المائدۃ:2)

O ye who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the symbols of Allah, …

وَ مَنْ  یُّعَظِّمْ شَعَآئِرَ اللہِ فَاِ نَّھَا مِنْ تَقْوَی الْقُلُوْبِ

  (الحج :32)

And whoever honors the symbols of Allah – indeed, it is from the piety of hearts.

In the light of the above ayaat and ahadiths, is it not desecrating and downplaying the status of Ka’ba by propagating this belief that the grave of the Prophet () is superior to the Ka’ba?

III – The exalted status of Allah Ta’ala and His Throne

The Deobandi founders and other ulema have clearly described that the dust of the Prophet’s grave is superior to the Throne of Allah Ta’ala (may Allah forgive us). The Quran describes the Throne of Allah as:

اِنَّ رَبَّکُمُ اللہُ الَّذِیْ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضَ فِیْ سِتَّۃِ اَیَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوٰی عَلَی الْعَرْشِ

 (الاعراف : 54/یونس :3)

Indeed, your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne. 

Similar contents, highlighting the sanctity of Allah’s throne, are found elsewhere in the Quran:

اَلرَّحْمٰنُ عَلَی الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوٰی

 (طٰہٰ :5)

 The Most Merciful [who is] established above the Throne.

لَآ اِلٰہَ اِلاَّ ھُوَ ج رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْکَرِیْمِ 

 (المومنون :116) 

… there is no deity except Him, Lord of the Noble Throne.

 …وَھُوَ رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِیْمِ

(التوبہ :129)

“… and He is the Lord of the Great Throne.”

لَوْکَانَ فِیْھِمَآ اٰلِھَۃٌ اِلاَّ اللہُ لَفَسَدَتَا ج فَسُبْحٰنَ اللہِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ عَمَّا یَصِفُوْنَ

 (الانبیاء :22)

Had there been within both (the heavens and earth) gods besides Allah, they both would have been ruined. So exalted is Allah, Lord of the Throne, above what they ascribe (unto Him).

Apart from these, the Quran also mentions in many places the greatness, honor, dignity, respect, glory and reverence of the Divine Throne.

The virtue of the Divine Throne is also evident from the narration brought by Bukhari that on the day when there will be no shade except the shade of the Throne, then there will be only seven kinds of persons under it.

The Throne is the place where the Creator and Owner of the whole universe is established. What a greatness of the throne, but the Deobandis declare that the soil of the tomb of the Prophet is superior to the Throne of Allah.

No part of the earth, even if it is the tomb of the Prophet (ﷺ), can have any competition with the Throne, let alone declaring it to be superior.

III – The desecration of Allah’s Chair

Let us now see the status of the Chair which has been describes in Ayat-ul-Kursi:

وَسِعَ کُرْسِیُّہُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالَاَرْضَ ج وَلاَیَئُوْدُہٗ حِفْظُھُمَا ج

 (البقرۃ :255)

His chair extends over the heavens and the earth, and the preservation of them both tires Him not.  

Al-Kursi, the Chair, does not mean a furniture with four legs, because there is no finite material body where Allah can fit in that limited space. May Allah forgive us.

We cannot even comprehend the concept of His chair and Him being established there. The “chair” means the seat together with Him being established, the command, control, authority, power and order of the whole universe and whole of it. For the earth and the heavens, and all that is between them, are ruled by the One and the Only Allah Ta’ala.  He alone is running their systems; every little or big thing and creature in this universe is subservient to His command.

But according to these Deobandi ulema, the grave of the Prophet () is superior to this infinite authority (the chair) of Allah Ta’ala. In this way, by making the attributes of others superior to the attributes of Allah Ta’ala, they have raised the level of the creatures higher than the Creator and the servants higher than the Master. This is clearly a blasphemous belief.

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Considering Mohammed ﷺas Alim ul Ghaib is shirk

بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

Considering Mohammed ﷺas Alim ul Ghaib is shirk in the light of Qur’an and Hadith

إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ لِلَّهِ، نَحْمَدُهُ وَنَسْتَعِينُهُ، مَنْ يَهْدِهِ اللهُ فَلَا مُضِلَّ لَهُ، وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلَا هَادِيَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، أَمَّا بَعْدُ

It is common belief amongst most of the Muslims that the Prophet (ﷺ) had full knowledge of the ‘ghaib’ (the unseen, unknown and invisible worlds). This article is being written with the aim that the misguidance spread by the sectarian ulema, maulvis, muftis and pirs (saints) regarding this belief in the ummah can be stopped saving them from the worst of all sins that is ‘shirk’.

I – Basics about the belief of aalim-ul-ghaib

The Arabic word غيب means ‘absence’, ‘hidden or concealed’ ‘unseen or invisible’. Aalim ul ghaib means one who knows well the transcendental, invisible realm irrespective of time and space meaning whatever is happening now but hidden from us or that which will happen in future or that which happened in the past which we have not seen. 

Allah Ta’ala has blessed every human being with five senses which enable us to feel the presence of an object and to know whatever is happening around us. Anything which is not detectable by our five senses falls in to the category of ‘unseen’.  Our five senses are augmented by technology which can make us aware of presence of things not normally visible by the naked eye. For example, ultra sound and x-ray reveal what is unseen for our eyes but we come to know by this technology. Hence whatever is known or felt by using augmentation system does not fall in the ‘unseen’. It is generally referred to ma tahat ul asbaab (under the material causes or because of the causes) as against ma fauq ul asbaab (whatever is beyond the known causes or unexplainable thing or simply ‘super natural’).  To see something super natural without the help of an instrument is called “knowledge of the unseen” and the one who has knowledge of it is called “aalim ul ghaib” and ‘allam ul ghuyub’ means one who thoroughly knows the invisible.

Allah is the Creator of everything in this universe, so obviously nothing can be hidden from Him. And He is the ‘aalim ul ghaib’ All-knower of the all-unseen. 

But unfortunately, due to the distance from the Qur’an and Hadith, misleading beliefs have come into this ummah that besides Allah Ta’ala there are others who possess the knowledge of the “unseen world”. It is as if this attribute of Allah Ta’ala is also possessed by His creatures and such belief clearly falls in to ‘associating others with Allah’s attributes ‘shirk fi al-sifaat’.

II – Who is aalim-ul-ghaib in the light of Qur’an?

Just note clear is the Qur’an as to who knows all of the knowledge of the invisible realm:

وَ عِنْدَهٗ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَاۤ اِلَّا هُوَ١ؕ وَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْبَرِّ وَ الْبَحْرِ١ؕ وَ مَا تَسْقُطُ مِنْ وَّرَقَةٍ اِلَّا يَعْلَمُهَا وَ لَا حَبَّةٍ فِيْ ظُلُمٰتِ الْاَرْضِ وَ لَا رَطْبٍ وَّ لَا يَابِسٍ اِلَّا فِيْ كِتٰبٍ مُّبِيْنٍ۰۰۵۹

 [الأنعام: 59]

And with Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except Him. And He knows what is on the land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but that He knows it. And no grain is there within the darknesses of the earth and no moist or dry [thing] but that it is [written] in a clear record.

عٰلِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَ الشَّهَادَةِ١ؕ وَ هُوَ الْحَكِيْمُ الْخَبِيْرُ۰۰۷۳

 [الأنعام: 73]

[He is] Knower of the unseen and the present; and He is the Wise, the Acquainted.

اَلَمْ يَعْلَمُوْۤا اَنَّ اللّٰهَ يَعْلَمُ سِرَّهُمْ وَ نَجْوٰىهُمْ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰهَ عَلَّامُ الْغُيُوْبِۚ۰۰۷۸

 [التوبة: 78]

Did they not know that Allah knows their secrets and their private conversations and that Allah is the Knower of the unseen?

اِنَّ اللّٰهَ عِنْدَهٗ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ١ۚ وَ يُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ١ۚ وَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْاَرْحَامِ١ؕ وَ مَا تَدْرِيْ نَفْسٌ مَّا ذَا تَكْسِبُ غَدًا١ؕ وَ مَا تَدْرِيْ نَفْسٌۢ بِاَيِّ اَرْضٍ تَمُوْتُ١ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ عَلِيْمٌ خَبِيْرٌؒ۰۰۳۴

 [لقمان: 34]

Indeed, Allah [alone] has knowledge of the Hour and sends down the rain and knows what is in the wombs. And no soul perceives what it will earn tomorrow, and no soul perceives in what land it will die. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted.

اِنَّ اللّٰهَ عٰلِمُ غَيْبِ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الْاَرْضِ١ؕ اِنَّهٗ عَلِيْمٌۢ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُوْرِ۰۰۳۸

 [فاطر: 38]

Indeed, Allah is Knower of the unنseen [aspects] of the heavens and earth. Indeed, He is Knowing of that within the breasts.

وَ يَقُوْلُوْنَ لَوْ لَاۤ اُنْزِلَ عَلَيْهِ اٰيَةٌ مِّنْ رَّبِّهٖ١ۚ فَقُلْ اِنَّمَا الْغَيْبُ لِلّٰهِ فَانْتَظِرُوْا١ۚ اِنِّيْ مَعَكُمْ مِّنَ الْمُنْتَظِرِيْنَؒ۰۰۲۰

 (يونس 20 )

And they say, “Why is a sign not sent down to him from his Lord?” So say, “The unseen is for Allah, so wait; indeed, I am with you among those who wait.”

قُلْ لَّا يَعْلَمُ مَنْ فِي السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الْاَرْضِ الْغَيْبَ اِلَّا اللّٰهُ١ؕ وَ مَا يَشْعُرُوْنَ اَيَّانَ يُبْعَثُوْنَ۰۰۶۵

 [النمل: 65]

Say, “None in the heavens and earth knows the unseen except Allah, and they do not perceive when they will be resurrected.”

What all these of ayaat are speaking out loudly that the realm of the unseen is only an attribute of Allah Ta’ala alone; no one shares this attribute. Last ayat is the final hujjat proof that ‘none in the heavens and the earth knows the ghaib (unseen)’.

II – What do the Prophets and angels know about the realm of the unseen?

وَ مَا كَانَ اللّٰهُ لِيُطْلِعَكُمْ عَلَى الْغَيْبِ وَ لٰكِنَّ اللّٰهَ يَجْتَبِيْ مِنْ رُّسُلِهٖ مَنْ يَّشَآء

 [آل عمران: 179]

… Nor would Allah reveal to you the unseen. But [instead], Allah chooses of His messengers whom He wills, …

That is, Allah does not reveal the unseen to the common people, but informs whatever from the unseen to whomever of His messengers He wills and as much as He wills.  It is as if the Prophets (ﷺ) did not possess such attributes as to reveal the unseen to themselves, but only when Allah informs them of the unseen.

The same is true of the angels, who are told by Allah Ta’ala as much as He wills. In Surah Baqarah, Allah Ta’ala mentions:

قَالُوْا سُبْحٰنَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَاۤ اِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا١ؕ اِنَّكَ اَنْتَ الْعَلِيْمُ الْحَكِيْمُ۰۰۳۲

 [البقرة: 32]

They said, “Exalted are You; we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Indeed, it is You who is the Knowing, the Wise.”

In the same conversation with the angels, Allah Ta’ala clearly mentions twice that He is All-knower of invisible as well as the visible worlds.

قَالَ اَلَمْ اَقُلْ لَّكُمْ اِنِّيْۤ اَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الْاَرْضِ١ۙ وَ اَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُوْنَ وَ مَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْتُمُوْنَ۰۰۳۳

[البقرة: 33]

He (Allah) said, “Did I not tell you that verily I know the unseen of the heavens and the earth? And I know what you reveal and what you conceal.”

Only Allah knows the realm of the unseen and He knows even what we hide. And that the chosen messengers (prophets and the angels) are given part of the knowledge of the unseen.

III – What do the jinns (genie) know about the realm of the unseen?

None of the jinns or genies knows anything from alghaib the unseen world. The following ayat is a proof:

فَلَمَّا قَضَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ الْمَوْتَ مَا دَلَّهُمْ عَلٰى مَوْتِهٖۤ اِلَّا دَآبَّةُ الْاَرْضِ تَاْكُلُ مِنْسَاَتَهٗ١ۚ فَلَمَّا خَرَّ تَبَيَّنَتِ الْجِنُّ اَنْ لَّوْ كَانُوْا يَعْلَمُوْنَ الْغَيْبَ مَا لَبِثُوْا فِي الْعَذَابِ الْمُهِيْنِؕ۰۰۱۴

 [سبأ: 14]

And when We decreed for Solomon (his) death, nothing indicated to the jinn his death except a creature of the earth eating his staff. But when he fell, it became clear to the jinn that if they had known the unseen, they would not have remained in humiliating punishment.

III – Are the prophets (ﷺ) aalim-ul ghaib (knower of the Unseen)?

Allah Ta’ala tells the prophets in clear words that they did not know things from the ‘al-ghaib’ the unseen and he then tell them what actually happened or will happen:

ذٰلِكَ مِنْ اَنْۢبَآءِ الْغَيْبِ نُوْحِيْهِ اِلَيْكَ١ؕ وَ مَا كُنْتَ لَدَيْهِمْ اِذْ يُلْقُوْنَ اَقْلَامَهُمْ اَيُّهُمْ يَكْفُلُ مَرْيَمَ١۪ وَ مَا كُنْتَ لَدَيْهِمْ اِذْ يَخْتَصِمُوْنَ۰۰۴۴

[آل عمران: 44]

That is from the news of the unseen which We reveal to you, [O Muhammad]. And you were not with them when they cast their pens as to which of them should be responsible for Mary. Nor were you with them when they disputed.

 يَوْمَ يَجْمَعُ اللّٰهُ الرُّسُلَ فَيَقُوْلُ مَا ذَاۤ اُجِبْتُمْ١ؕ قَالُوْا لَا عِلْمَ لَنَا١ؕ اِنَّكَ اَنْتَ عَلَّامُ الْغُيُوْبِ

 [المائدة: 109]

[Be warned of] the Day when Allah will assemble the messengers and say, “What was the response you received?” They will say, “We have no knowledge. Indeed, it is You who is Knower of the unseen (thoroughly)

قُلْ لَّاۤ اَقُوْلُ لَكُمْ عِنْدِيْ خَزَآىِٕنُ اللّٰهِ وَ لَاۤ اَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ وَ لَاۤ اَقُوْلُ لَكُمْ اِنِّيْ مَلَكٌ١ۚ اِنْ اَتَّبِعُ اِلَّا مَا يُوْحٰۤى اِلَيَّ١ؕ قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الْاَعْمٰى وَ الْبَصِيْرُ١ؕ اَفَلَا تَتَفَكَّرُوْنَؒ۰۰۵۰

[الأنعام: 50]

Say, [O Muhammad], “I do not tell you that I have the treasures of Allah or that I know the unseen, nor do I tell you that I am an angel. I only follow what is revealed to me.” Say, “Is the blind equivalent to the seeing? Then will you not give thought?”

يَسْـَٔلُوْنَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ اَيَّانَ مُرْسٰىهَا١ؕ قُلْ اِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ رَبِّيْ١ۚ لَا يُجَلِّيْهَا لِوَقْتِهَاۤ اِلَّا هُوَ

 [الأعراف: 187]

They ask you, [O Muhammad], about the Hour: when is its arrival? Say, “Its knowledge is only with my Lord. None will reveal its time except Him. It lays heavily upon the heavens and the earth. It will not come upon you except unexpectedly.” They ask you as if you are familiar with it. Say, “Its knowledge is only with Allah, but most of the people do not know.”

قُلْ لَّاۤ اَمْلِكُ لِنَفْسِيْ نَفْعًا وَّ لَا ضَرًّا اِلَّا مَا شَآءَ اللّٰهُ١ؕ وَ لَوْ كُنْتُ اَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ لَا سْتَكْثَرْتُ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ١ۛۖۚ وَ مَا مَسَّنِيَ السُّوْٓءُ١ۛۚ اِنْ اَنَا اِلَّا نَذِيْرٌ وَّ بَشِيْرٌ لِّقَوْمٍ يُّؤْمِنُوْنَؒ۰۰۱۸۸

 [الأعراف: 188]

Say, “I hold not for myself [the power of] benefit or harm, except what Allah has willed. And if I knew the unseen, I could have acquired much wealth, and no harm would have touched me. I am not except a warner and a bringer of good tidings to a people who believe.”

وَ مِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُمْ مِّنَ الْاَعْرَابِ مُنٰفِقُوْنَ١ۛؕ وَ مِنْ اَهْلِ الْمَدِيْنَةِ١ؔۛ۫ مَرَدُوْا عَلَى النِّفَاقِ١۫ لَا تَعْلَمُهُمْ١ؕ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ١ؕ سَنُعَذِّبُهُمْ مَّرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّوْنَ اِلٰى عَذَابٍ عَظِيْمٍۚ۰۰۱۰۱

 [التوبة: 101]

And among those around you of the bedouins are hypocrites, and [also] from the people of Madinah. They have become accustomed to hypocrisy. You, [O Muhammad], do not know them, [but] We know them. We will punish them twice [in this world]; then they will be returned to a great punishment.

تِلْكَ مِنْ اَنْۢبَآءِ الْغَيْبِ نُوْحِيْهَاۤ اِلَيْكَ١ۚ مَا كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُهَاۤ اَنْتَ وَ لَا قَوْمُكَ مِنْ قَبْلِ هٰذَا١ۛؕ فَاصْبِرْ١ۛؕ اِنَّ الْعَاقِبَةَ لِلْمُتَّقِيْنَؒ۰۰۴۹

 [هود: 49]

That is from the news of the unseen which We reveal to you, [O Muhammad]. You knew it not, neither you nor your people, before this. So be patient; indeed, the [best] outcome is for the righteous.

نَحْنُ نَقُصُّ عَلَيْكَ اَحْسَنَ الْقَصَصِ بِمَاۤ اَوْحَيْنَاۤ اِلَيْكَ هٰذَا الْقُرْاٰنَ١ۖۗ وَ اِنْ كُنْتَ مِنْ قَبْلِهٖ لَمِنَ الْغٰفِلِيْنَ۰۰۳

[يوسف: 3]

We relate to you, [O Muhammad], the best of the narratives in what We have revealed to you of this Qur’an although you were, before it, among the unaware.

Only Allah knows the realm of the unseen and He tells the prophets what they need to know for a specific purpose. In the light of the Qur’an, the prophets in general and our Prophet (ﷺ) in particular were given information from the unseen to pass it on to the believers.

Previously, we had proved with the arguments of Qur’an and Hadith that the realm of the unseen belongs to Allah Ta’ala alone. This is the second part in which first of all, we will explain the ahadith on the basis of which the Prophet is considered to be the knower of the realm of the unseen. Then the phrase ‘اَلَمْ تَرَكَيْفَ’ ‘did you not see’ is looked in to as why it does not mean what the sectarian ulema are presenting as a proof.

I – Evidence from the ahadith that the Prophet was not all- knower of the all-unseen

The Prophet’s wife Aisha (رضی اللہ عنہا) was slandered and the Prophet (ﷺ) was upset for a month and kept consulting people about his wife. A month later, when the revelation came from Allah, he was informed about the chastity of his wife. (Sahih Bokhari, Muslim, etc.)

Imagine if the Prophet (ﷺ) had known the unseen, he would have said on the first day that it was all a lie and that Aisha was chaste, but it did not happen.

Similarly, a hadith from Anas bin Malik (ﷺ) is brought forth by Bukhari and Muslim:

“The people of the tribes of Ri’l, Dhakwan, ‘Usayya and Bani Lihyan came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and claimed that they had embraced Islam, and they requested him to support them with some men to fight the enemy. The Prophet (ﷺ) supported them with seventy men from the Ansar whom we used to call Al-Qurra’ who used to cut wood during the day and pray all the night. So, those people took the (seventy) men till they reached a place called the Well of Al-Ma’una where they betrayed and martyred them. So, the Prophet (ﷺ) invoked curse on the tribe of Ri’l, Dhakwan, ‘Usayya and Bani Lihyan for one month in the prayer.”

If the Prophet (ﷺ) had complete knowledge of the unseen to know what was in the hearts of the tribesmen who by their tongues were claiming to be Muslims, he would have never sent seventy of the Ansar who got killed by treachery.

How could the Prophet (ﷺ) allow seventy of his sahaba to go with their killers in disguise if he had known the unseen of what was really in the hearts of the tribesmen apparently claiming to be Muslims but by their hearts, they were the enemies.

The Mother of the believers, Aisha (رضی اللہ عنہا) says:

قَالَتْ مَنْ حَدَّثَكَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا صلى الله عليه وسلم رَأَى رَبَّهُ فَقَدْ كَذَبَ وَهْوَ يَقُولُ ‏{‏لاَ تُدْرِكُهُ الأَبْصَارُ‏}‏ وَمَنْ حَدَّثَكَ أَنَّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ فَقَدْ كَذَبَ، وَهْوَ يَقُولُ لاَ يَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ‏.‏

( بخاری ،  کتاب التحید ، بَابُ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى: {عَالِمُ الغَيْبِ فَلاَ يُظْهِرُ عَلَى غَيْبِهِ أَحَدًا} )

She said, “If anyone tells you that Muhammed () has seen his Lord, he is a liar, for Allah says: ‘No vision can grasp Him.’ (6.103) And if anyone tells you that he () knew the Unseen, he has told a lie, for Allah says: “None has the knowledge of the Unseen but Allah.”

In another tradition, Umm Salama (رضی اللہ عنہا), the Mother of the believers, narrates:

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: إِنَّكُمْ تَخْتَصِمُونَ إِلَيَّ، وَلَعَلَّ بَعْضَكُمْ أَلْحَنُ بِحُجَّتِهِ مِنْ بَعْضٍ، فَمَنْ قَضَيْتُ لَهُ بِحَقِّ أَخِيهِ شَيْئًا، بِقَوْلِهِ: فَإِنَّمَا أَقْطَعُ لَهُ قِطْعَةً مِنَ النَّارِ فَلاَ يَأْخُذْهَا

( بخاری ،  کتاب الشھادت ، بَابُ مَنْ أَقَامَ البَيِّنَةَ بَعْدَ اليَمِينِ )

Once Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “You people present your cases to me and some of you may be more eloquent in presenting their argument than others. So, if I give something from his brother’s right to him, I have cut for him a piece of the hell fire; so, he should not take it.”

It is as if the Prophet (ﷺ) said: I do not know the unseen so I do not know the truth in case of an arbitration. Only after listening to your words, I decide in favor of one.

Umm Al-‘ala ( رضی اللہ عنہا), who embraced Islam on the hand of the Prophet (ﷺ), says:

أَنَّهُ اقْتُسِمَ المُهَاجِرُونَ قُرْعَةً فَطَارَ لَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ مَظْعُونٍ، فَأَنْزَلْنَاهُ فِي أَبْيَاتِنَا، فَوَجِعَ وَجَعَهُ الَّذِي تُوُفِّيَ فِيهِ، فَلَمَّا تُوُفِّيَ وَغُسِّلَ وَكُفِّنَ فِي أَثْوَابِهِ، دَخَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَقُلْتُ: رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ أَبَا السَّائِبِ، فَشَهَادَتِي عَلَيْكَ: لَقَدْ أَكْرَمَكَ اللَّهُ، فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «وَمَا يُدْرِيكِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَكْرَمَهُ؟» فَقُلْتُ: بِأَبِي أَنْتَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، فَمَنْ يُكْرِمُهُ اللَّهُ؟ فَقَالَ: «أَمَّا هُوَ فَقَدْ جَاءَهُ اليَقِينُ، وَاللَّهِ إِنِّي لَأَرْجُو لَهُ الخَيْرَ، وَاللَّهِ مَا أَدْرِي، وَأَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، مَا يُفْعَلُ بِي» قَالَتْ: فَوَاللَّهِ لاَ أُزَكِّي أَحَدًا بَعْدَهُ أَبَدًا حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ عُفَيْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ مِثْلَهُ. وَقَالَ نَافِعُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ، عَنْ عُقَيْلٍ مَا يُفْعَلُ بِهِ.

( بخاری، کتاب الجنائز ، بَابُ الدُّخُولِ عَلَى المَيِّتِ بَعْدَ المَوْتِ إِذَا أُدْرِجَ فِي أَكْفَانِهِ )

“The emigrants were distributed amongst us by drawing lots and we got in our share Uthman bin Mazoun. We made him stay with us in our house. Then he suffered from a disease which proved fatal when he died and was given a bath and was shrouded in his clothes, Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) came. I said, ‘May Allah be merciful to you, O Abu As-Sa’ib! I testify that Allah has honored you’. The Prophet (ﷺ) said, ‘How do you know that Allah has honored him?’ I replied, ‘O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! Let my father be sacrificed for you! On whom else shall Allah bestow His honor?’ The Prophet (ﷺ) said, ‘No doubt, death came to him. By Allah, I too wish him good, but by Allah, I do not know what Allah will do with me though I am Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ). ‘ By Allah, I never attested the piety of anyone after that.”

Khalid bin Dhakwan said:

قَالَتِ الرُّبَيِّعُ بِنْتُ مُعَوِّذِ ابْنِ عَفْرَاءَ، جَاءَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَدَخَلَ حِينَ بُنِيَ عَلَيَّ، فَجَلَسَ عَلَى فِرَاشِي كَمَجْلِسِكَ مِنِّي، فَجَعَلَتْ جُوَيْرِيَاتٌ لَنَا، يَضْرِبْنَ بِالدُّفِّ وَيَنْدُبْنَ مَنْ قُتِلَ مِنْ آبَائِي يَوْمَ بَدْرٍ، إِذْ قَالَتْ إِحْدَاهُنَّ: وَفِينَا نَبِيٌّ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي غَدٍ، فَقَالَ: «دَعِي هَذِهِ، وَقُولِي بِالَّذِي كُنْتِ تَقُولِينَ»

( بخاری ، کتاب النکاح  – ضرْبِ الدُّفِّ فِي النِّكَاحِ وَالْوَلِيمَةِ )

‘Al-Rubi’u, the daughter of Muawwidh bin Afra said that, “after the consummation of my marriage, the Prophet (ﷺ) came and sat on my bed as far from me as you are sitting now, and our little girls started beating the tambourines and reciting elegiac verses mourning my father who had been killed in the battle of Badr. One of them said, “Among us is a Prophet who knows what will happen tomorrow.” On that the Prophet said, “Leave this (saying) and keep on saying the verses which you had been saying before.”

That is, the Prophet (ﷺ) did not like the thing in which he is called as the knower of the unseen.

عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الخُدْرِيِّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، خَرَجَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي أَضْحًى أَوْ فِطْرٍ إِلَى المُصَلَّى، ثُمَّ انْصَرَفَ، فَوَعَظَ النَّاسَ، وَأَمَرَهُمْ بِالصَّدَقَةِ، فَقَالَ: «أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، تَصَدَّقُوا»، فَمَرَّ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ، فَقَالَ: «يَا مَعْشَرَ النِّسَاءِ، تَصَدَّقْنَ، فَإِنِّي رَأَيْتُكُنَّ أَكْثَرَ أَهْلِ النَّارِ» فَقُلْنَ: وَبِمَ ذَلِكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ؟ قَالَ: «تُكْثِرْنَ اللَّعْنَ، وَتَكْفُرْنَ العَشِيرَ، مَا رَأَيْتُ مِنْ نَاقِصَاتِ عَقْلٍ وَدِينٍ، أَذْهَبَ لِلُبِّ الرَّجُلِ الحَازِمِ، مِنْ إِحْدَاكُنَّ، يَا مَعْشَرَ النِّسَاءِ» ثُمَّ انْصَرَفَ، فَلَمَّا صَارَ إِلَى مَنْزِلِهِ، جَاءَتْ زَيْنَبُ، امْرَأَةُ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، تَسْتَأْذِنُ عَلَيْهِ، فَقِيلَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، هَذِهِ زَيْنَبُ، فَقَالَ: «أَيُّ الزَّيَانِبِ؟» فَقِيلَ: امْرَأَةُ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، قَالَ: «نَعَمْ، ائْذَنُوا لَهَا» فَأُذِنَ لَهَا۔۔۔

( بخاری ،  کتاب الزکاۃ ِ بَابُ الزَّكَاةِ عَلَى الأَقَارِبِ )

On the authority of Abu Saeed Al-Khudri ( رضی اللہ عنہ): On Eid ul Fitr or Eid ul Adha, Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) went out to the prayer ground. After finishing the prayer, he delivered the sermon and ordered the people to give alms. He said, “O people! Give alms.” Then he went towards the women and said, “O women! Give alms, for I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-Fire were you (women).” The women asked, “O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! What is the reason for it?” He replied, “O women! You curse frequently, and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. O women, some of you can lead a cautious wise man astray.” Then he left. And when he reached his house, Zainab (رضی اللہ عنہا), the wife of Abdullah Ibn Masud (رضی اللہ عنہ), came and asked permission to enter.

 It was said, “O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! It is Zainab.” He asked, ‘Which of the Zainabs?” The reply was that she was the wife of Ibn Masud. He said, “Yes, allow her to enter.” And she was admitted. Then she said, “O Prophet of Allah! Today you ordered people to give alms and I had an ornament and intended to give it as alms, but Ibn Masud said that he and his children deserved it more than anybody else.” The Prophet (ﷺ) replied, “Ibn Masud had spoken the truth. Your husband and your children had more right to it than anybody else.”

Did you notice that the Prophet (ﷺ) did not know who had come to his door to meet him despite knowing her well. And that he did not know the question until asked by her. He did not say, ‘I know what is your heart’.

II – Argument based on اَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ ‘did you not see ..’ for an event of the past (ghaib)

It is clear from the above justification from the Qur’an and ahadith that in this entire universe, only Allah alone is the “All-Knower of the all-unseen as well the seen”. Besides Him, to consider someone also possessing this attribute is shirk in the attributes of Allah Ta’ala. But the ulema of the sects who have spread this belief of the Prophet (ﷺ) knowing the unseen against the Qur’an and Hadith and try their best to mislead people.

And they present first ayat of Surah Al-Feel that:

اَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِاَصْحٰبِ الْفِيْلِ

Have you (O Muhammed ) not seen how your Lord dealt with the Owners of the Elephant?

They argue saying ‘isn’t the Qur’an telling us that, because of the word ‘seen’, the Prophet (ﷺ) was present there and watched when it happened?  This proves that he is alim ul ghaib, knower of the unseen!’  The fact is that all this is deception.

Here the context fixes the meaning of ‘see’ to be ‘know’. If someone says to a young man, “Have you not seen how many people were killed when Pakistan was formed?” Whereas it actually means that don’t you know how many killings took place when Pakistan was formed! Likewise, we find in the Qur’an:

اَلَمْ يَرَوْا كَمْ اَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُمْ مِّنَ الْقُرُوْنِ اَنَّهُمْ اِلَيْهِمْ لَا يَرْجِعُوْنَؕ

 [يس: 31]

Have you people not seen how many generations We destroyed before them – that they, to them, will not return?

Here, too, the seeing of the disbelievers means that they know that is “Do they not know that We have destroyed many nations before them?” Here, in no way can the disbelievers be considered present as spectators of the event thus they are also alim ul ghaib. Ulema will definitely agree that this is not the case. Then why the same logic should not apply to the first ayat of Surah Al-Feel?

Other ayaat also explain the same meaning of ‘knowing’, ‘realizing’ and ‘considering’ used in English translation of these ayaat.

اَوَ لَمْ يَرَ الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْۤا اَنَّ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الْاَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنٰهُمَا١ؕ وَ جَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَآءِ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ١ؕ اَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُوْنَ۰۰۳۰

 [الأنبياء: 30]

Have those, who disbelieved, not seen (considered) that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, and We separated them and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe?

اَوَ لَمْ يَرَ الْاِنْسَانُ اَنَّا خَلَقْنٰهُ مِنْ نُّطْفَةٍ فَاِذَا هُوَ خَصِيْمٌ مُّبِيْنٌ۰۰۷۷

 [يس: 77]

Does man not see (think) that We created him from a [mere] sperm-drop – then he is a clear adversary?

فَاَمَّا عَادٌ فَاسْتَكْبَرُوْا۠ فِي الْاَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَ قَالُوْا مَنْ اَشَدُّ مِنَّا قُوَّةً١ؕ اَوَ لَمْ يَرَوْا اَنَّ اللّٰهَ الَّذِيْ خَلَقَهُمْ هُوَ اَشَدُّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةً١ؕ وَ كَانُوْا بِاٰيٰتِنَا يَجْحَدُوْنَ۰۰۱۵

[فصلت: 15]

As for Aad, they were arrogant upon the earth without right and said, “Who is greater than us in strength?” Did they not see (consider) that Allah, who created them, was greater than them in strength? But they were rejecting Our signs.

III – Conclusion about meaning of اَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ from the ayaat

These verses of the Qur’an make it clear that the word “did you not see” does not mean that the Prophet () was present at that time or that he was the knower of the unseen, but it means that “O Prophet! Have not the news reached you that the whole of Arabia knows?” 

The words اَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ are taken by the sectarian ulema that our Prophet () was present there at that time and watching the event. And some of them also believe that he is present everywhere.  Whereas these words refer to two things; one is ‘seeing with your own eyes’, ie the visual observation, while the other is ‘the consideration by heart’, which means that you certainly believe as you have been told. What is meant here is not to be present or to know the unseen, but to know and realize. That is, the whole of Arabia knew this as if everyone had seen it with their own eyes.

I – Is the testimony of the Prophet (ﷺ) on the Day of Resurrection a proof that he is the knower of the unseen?

An ayat from Sura Al-Baqarah is also quoted regarding the fact that the Prophet (ﷺ) will testify the evidence given by his ummah on the Day of Resurrection. They say that it means that he is always present everywhere, ever-observing and the knower of the unseen that is why he will be able to give his testimony.

Explanation

It is the practice of the maulvis that they do not show the ayat but mislead the people by saying that ‘it is mentioned in the Qur’an’.  Allah Ta’ala says:

وَ كَذٰلِكَ جَعَلْنٰكُمْ اُمَّةً وَّسَطًا لِّتَكُوْنُوْا شُهَدَآءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَ يَكُوْنَ الرَّسُوْلُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيْدًا١ؕ وَ مَا جَعَلْنَا الْقِبْلَةَ الَّتِيْ كُنْتَ عَلَيْهَاۤ اِلَّا لِنَعْلَمَ مَنْ يَّتَّبِعُ الرَّسُوْلَ مِمَّنْ يَّنْقَلِبُ عَلٰى عَقِبَيْهِ١ؕ وَ اِنْ كَانَتْ لَكَبِيْرَةً اِلَّا عَلَى الَّذِيْنَ هَدَى اللّٰهُ١ؕ وَ مَا كَانَ اللّٰهُ لِيُضِيْعَ اِيْمَانَكُمْ١ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ بِالنَّاسِ لَرَءُوْفٌ رَّحِيْمٌ۰۰۱۴۳

 [البقرة: 143]

And thus, We have made you a just community that you will be witnesses over the people and the Messenger will be a witness over you. And We did not make the qiblah which you used to face except that We might make evident who would follow the Messenger from who would turn back on his heels. And indeed, it is difficult except for those whom Allah has guided. And never would Allah have caused you to lose your faith. Indeed, Allah is, to the people, Kind and Merciful.

Read this ayat again and see who will give “testimony” before the Prophet (ﷺ)? Allah Ta’ala said that this ummah of the Prophet (ﷺ) will bear witness over other prophets’ ummats and the Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) will be a witness over this ummah. If it is taken to mean to be present and the observing and having the knowledge of the unseen, then this whole ummah is alim ul ghaib “the present and the observing and has the knowledge of the unseen”.

But this is not the case at all. The Prophet’s interpretation of this ayat is as follows:

عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الخُدْرِيِّ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِﷺ: ” يُدْعَى نُوحٌ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ، فَيَقُولُ: لَبَّيْكَ وَسَعْدَيْكَ يَا رَبِّ، فَيَقُولُ: هَلْ بَلَّغْتَ؟ فَيَقُولُ: نَعَمْ، فَيُقَالُ لِأُمَّتِهِ: هَلْ بَلَّغَكُمْ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ: مَا أَتَانَا مِنْ نَذِيرٍ، فَيَقُولُ: مَنْ يَشْهَدُ لَكَ؟ فَيَقُولُ: مُحَمَّدٌ وَأُمَّتُهُ، فَتَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّهُ قَدْ بَلَّغَ: {وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا}، فَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ جَلَّ ذِكْرُهُ: {وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا}

( بخاری،  کتاب تفسیر القرآن، بَابُ قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: {وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا} )

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Noah will be called on the Day of Resurrection and he will say, ‘Labbaik and Sa`daik, O my Lord!’ Allah will say, ‘Did you convey the Message?’ Noah will say, ‘Yes.’ His nation will then be asked, ‘Did he convey the Message to you?’ They will say, ‘No Warner came to us.’ Then Allah will say (to Noah), ‘Who will bear witness in your favor?’ He will say, ‘Muhammad and his followers. So they (i.e. Muslims) will testify that he conveyed the Message. And the Apostle (Muhammad) will be a witness over yourselves, and that is what is meant by the Statement of Allah “Thus We have made of you a just and the best nation that you may be witnesses over mankind and the Apostle (Muhammad) will be a witness over yourselves.” (2.143)

It became clear that to testify means that we were told through the Qur’an that Noah ( علیہ السلام) called his people to Allah night and day and conveyed His message (Sura Noah Ayat 5). This does not mean that this ummah is alim ghaib so how could the Prophet (ﷺ) be credited with ‘alim ul ghaib’ in exactly the same situation.

Similarly, Kalima Tayyiba that is la ilaha illa Allah Muhammedur Rasoolullah also proves that we did not see Allah Ta’ala nor did we see Muhammed () nor did we see the revelation being revealed. All of this testimony is an unseen testimony without us being aalim ul ghaib.

II – Proving the Prophet (ﷺ) to be the knower of the unseen from the ayat from Sura Al-Takweer

The ayat says: 

وَمَا هُوَ عَلَي الْغَيْبِ بِضَنِيْنٍ         

 [التكوير: 24]

And he (Muhammed ) withholds not a knowledge of the unseen.

By quoting this ayat, they claim that Allah Ta’ala is saying that Prophet Muhammed (ﷺ) does not hide the words of the unseen but reveals them openly. How could we know anything about the heaven and the hell if he did not tell? As if he is the knower of the realm of the unseen.

Explanation

The evidence presented by the Qur’an and Hadith proves that the knowledge of the realm of the unseen belongs to Allah Ta’ala alone. And He informs chosen ones from His messengers as much as He wills of the unseen. It is being explained about whatever was brought in the knowledge of the Prophet (ﷺ) was told that the Prophet (ﷺ) did not hide anything from things from the unseen as informed by Allah, but conveyed it to human beings as it is.  But misguided sectarian schools turned it the other way to prove their false beliefs.

III – Misconceptions spread regarding ahadith

It is stated with reference to the ahadith that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, ‘I keep watching you from behind (while leading the salat). However, it also means that Allah Ta’ala made him see what was happening behind.

عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ: أَنَّ رَجُلًا اطَّلَعَ مِنْ جُحْرٍ فِي دَارِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَالنَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَحُكُّ رَأْسَهُ بِالْمِدْرَى فَقَالَ: «لَوْ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّكَ تَنْظُرُ، لَطَعَنْتُ بِهَا فِي عَيْنِكَ، إِنَّمَا جُعِلَ الإِذْنُ مِنْ قِبَلِ الأَبْصَارِ»

( بخاری، کتاب اللباس  ، بَابُ الِامْتِشَاطِ ٌ )

A man peeped into the house of the Prophet (ﷺ) through a hole while the Prophet (ﷺ) was scratching his head with a Midrai (a certain kind of comb). On that the Prophet (ﷺ) said (to him), “If I had known you had been looking, then I would have pierced your eye with that instrument, because the asking of permission has been ordained so that one would not see things unlawfully.”

This hadith confirms that the Prophet (ﷺ) could not look behind him by his own vision. In another hadith:

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ انْصَرَفَ مِنْ صَلَاةٍ جَهَرَ فِيهَا بِالْقِرَائَةِ فَقَالَ هَلْ قَرَأَ مَعِي مِنْکُمْ أَحَدٌ آنِفًا فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ نَعَمْ أَنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِنِّي أَقُولُ مَا لِي أُنَازَعُ الْقُرْآنَ فَانْتَهَی النَّاسُ عَنْ الْقِرَائَةِ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِيمَا جَهَرَ فِيهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِالْقِرَائَةِ حِينَ سَمِعُوا ذَلِکَ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ

( مؤطا امام مالک،کتاب الصلاۃ ، باب ترك القراءة خلف الإمام فيما جهر فيه )

On the authority of Abu Huraira ( رضی اللہ عنہ), the Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) finished a prayer in which he had recited aloud and asked, “Did any of you recite with me just now?” One man said, “Yes, I did, Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ).” Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “I was saying to myself, ‘Why am I being distracted from the Qur’an?’ ” When the people heard Allah’s Messenger () say that, they refrained from reciting with Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) when he recited aloud.

It also becomes clear that the Prophet (ﷺ) could not look behind while leading the salat. Otherwise, he would not have enquired about who was reciting rather could have said, ‘o so and so why were you Qur’an while I was reciting; do not do that again or words to that effect.  The point is that “I see behind me” meant to receive information about the unseen from Allah Ta’ala.

The information from the unseen were sometimes told in a dream, sometimes the Prophet was shown heaven and hell on the wall of the mosque and sometimes angels were shown working. Please read the next hadith:

عَنْ أَنَسٍ، أَنَّ رَجُلًا جَاءَ فَدَخَلَ الصَّفَّ وَقَدْ حَفَزَهُ النَّفَسُ، فَقَالَ: الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ حَمْدًا كَثِيرًا طَيِّبًا مُبَارَكًا فِيهِ، فَلَمَّا قَضَى رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ صَلَاتَهُ قَالَ: «أَيُّكُمُ الْمُتَكَلِّمُ بِالْكَلِمَاتِ؟» فَأَرَمَّ الْقَوْمُ، فَقَالَ: «أَيُّكُمُ الْمُتَكَلِّمُ بِهَا؟ فَإِنَّهُ لَمْ يَقُلْ بَأْسًا» فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ: جِئْتُ وَقَدْ حَفَزَنِي النَّفَسُ فَقُلْتُهَا، فَقَالَ: «لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ مَلَكًا يَبْتَدِرُونَهَا، أَيُّهُمْ يَرْفَعُهَا»

( مسلم ، کتاب المساجد و مواضع  الصلاۃ ، بَابُ مَا يُقَالُ بَيْنَ تَكْبِيرَةِ الْإِحْرَامِ وَالْقِرَاءَةِ )

On the authority of Anas ( رضٰ اللہ عنہ); A man came panting and entered the row of worshippers and said: Praise be to Allah, much praised and blessed. When the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) finished the prayer he said: Who amongst you uttered these words? The people remained silent. He again said, ‘Who amongst you uttered these words? He said nothing wrong’. Then a man said: I came and had a difficulty in breathing, so I uttered them. He replied, ‘I saw twelve angels racing with one another as to who will take them up (to Allah).

The real interpretation of the ayat of Sura Ale-Imran has come to light that Allah Ta’ala informs any of His Prophets as much as He wills. The Prophet ()was shown the twelve angels who were in a hurry to convey these words to Allah Ta’ala, but the person who uttered these words was not shown from his back.

People with weak beliefs also say about their pirs (the saints) that they are know the realm of the unseen and many of the things they have said have been practically fulfilled. Following hadith explains it:

: سَمِعْتُ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ، يَقُولُ: إِنَّ نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ الأَمْرَ فِي السَّمَاءِ، ضَرَبَتِ المَلاَئِكَةُ بِأَجْنِحَتِهَا خُضْعَانًا لِقَوْلِهِ، كَأَنَّهُ سِلْسِلَةٌ عَلَى صَفْوَانٍ، فَإِذَا فُزِّعَ عَنْ قُلُوبِهِمْ قَالُوا: مَاذَا قَالَ رَبُّكُمْ؟ قَالُوا لِلَّذِي قَالَ: الحَقَّ، وَهُوَ العَلِيُّ الكَبِيرُ، فَيَسْمَعُهَا مُسْتَرِقُ السَّمْعِ، وَمُسْتَرِقُ السَّمْعِ هَكَذَا بَعْضُهُ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ – وَوَصَفَ سُفْيَانُ بِكَفِّهِ فَحَرَفَهَا، وَبَدَّدَ بَيْنَ أَصَابِعِهِ – فَيَسْمَعُ الكَلِمَةَ فَيُلْقِيهَا إِلَى مَنْ تَحْتَهُ، ثُمَّ يُلْقِيهَا الآخَرُ إِلَى مَنْ تَحْتَهُ، حَتَّى يُلْقِيَهَا عَلَى لِسَانِ السَّاحِرِ أَوِ الكَاهِنِ، فَرُبَّمَا أَدْرَكَ الشِّهَابُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُلْقِيَهَا، وَرُبَّمَا أَلْقَاهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يُدْرِكَهُ، فَيَكْذِبُ مَعَهَا مِائَةَ كَذْبَةٍ، فَيُقَالُ: أَلَيْسَ قَدْ قَالَ لَنَا يَوْمَ كَذَا وَكَذَا: كَذَا وَكَذَا، فَيُصَدَّقُ بِتِلْكَ الكَلِمَةِ الَّتِي سَمِعَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ “

( بخاری، کتاب تفسیر القرآن ، بَابُ {حَتَّى إِذَا فُزِّعَ عَنْ قُلُوبِهِمْ قَالُوا،، مَاذَا قَالَ رَبُّكُمْ؟ قَالُوا: (الحَقَّ وَهُوَ العَلِيُّ

Narrated Abu Huraira ( رضی اللہ عنہ) that he heard the Prophet (ﷺ) saying, “When Allah decrees some order in the heaven, the angels flutter their wings indicating complete surrender to His saying which sounds like chains being dragged on rock. And when the state of fear disappears, they ask each other, “What has your Lord ordered? They say that He has said that which is true and just, and He is the Most High, the Most Great.” (34.23). Then the stealthy listeners (devils) hear this order, and these stealthy listeners are like this, one over the other.” (Sufyan, a sub-narrator demonstrated that by holding his hand upright and separating the fingers.) A stealthy listener hears a word which he will convey to that which is below him and the second will convey it to that which is below him till the last of them will convey it to the wizard or foreteller. Sometimes a flame (fire) may strike the devil before he can convey it, and sometimes he may convey it before the flame (fire) strikes him, whereupon the wizard adds to that word a hundred lies. The people will then say, ‘Didn’t he (i.e. magician) tell such-and-such a thing on such-and-such date?’ So that magician is said to have told the truth because of the Statement which has been heard from the heavens.”

This has also been mentioned in the Qur’an:

هَلْ اُنَبِّئُكُمْ عَلٰى مَنْ تَنَزَّلُ الشَّيٰطِيْنُؕ۰۰۲۲۱تَنَزَّلُ عَلٰى كُلِّ اَفَّاكٍ اَثِيْمٍۙ۰۰۲۲يُّلْقُوْنَ السَّمْعَ وَ اَكْثَرُهُمْ كٰذِبُوْنَؕ۰۰۲۲۳

[الشعراء: 221-223]

Shall I inform you upon whom the devils descend?  They descend upon every sinful liar. They pass on what is heard, and most of them are liars.

It has become clear that they are not the knowers of the unseen, but the devils of the heavens and the earth can hear something from the world that the devils from human beings and the Jinns have put in their ears. And they exaggerate it. If what has already been commanded by Allah proves to be true, then people begin to consider this saint as the alim ul ghaib, the knower of realm of the unseen.

IV – Conclusion

Praise be to Allah. The subject of knowledge of the unseen has come to an end. It has been shown from Qur’an and the ahadith that none other than Allah Ta’ala is the All-Knower of the All-Unseen. And that selected messengers have been given some of the information from the unseen world as and when required. No saints and priests have any idea about the invisible world.  Spreading the belief of the Prophet (ﷺ) being the alim ul ghaib is totally against the teachings of Islam.

May Allah grant us all the ability to read, understand and act upon the Book of Allah.

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Belief of the Punishment of the Grave

بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم

 Belief of the Punishment of the Grave according to the Quran and Sahih Hadith

إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ لِلَّهِ، نَحْمَدُهُ وَنَسْتَعِينُهُ، مَنْ يَهْدِهِ اللهُ فَلَا مُضِلَّ لَهُ، وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلَا هَادِيَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، أَمَّا بَعْدُ

The Belief of the Punishment of the Grave

In present times the Muslim ummah main cause of “shirk” (associating partners with Allah Almighty) is due to the misbelief that a dead body is reunited with the soul and in some manner is brought back to a way of life in this worldly grave. The Quran and Sahih Hadith completely rejects that the soul returns to the dead body (o’ud rooh), or that the body has any connection with the soul and that punishment of any kind is experienced in this worldly grave. The Quran and Sahih Hadith state and confirm that, after life in this world as we know it the dead body remains unconnected to the soul till the day of resurrection. The dead body (corpse) is simply in a state of decomposition and eventually returns into soil.

The majority of today’s Muslims in some form or manner believe that the dead body in this worldly grave is alive and some may have the extreme belief that the body can hear and see. This misbelief in turn leads to calling to these dead bodies for assistance and intercession and considering them as daata (provider), mushkil kusha (problem solver) and haajat rawa (one who gives to the needy), These are dangerous paths that lead to grave worshiping. Due to this reason they are not invoking Allah exclusively and they do charitable acts in an attempt to please these dead saints etc.

The main cause of this misbelief is the returning of the soul into the dead body and that there is some form of life in the worldly grave. They say that the soul returns to the dead body for questions and answers and the punishment in the grave is experienced in the worldly grave. Now since their misbelief is that the soul has returned to the dead body, the question arises that the person is alive in some form and now this dead saint etc is empowered in some way and can assist in solving their issues in this life and the next.

In this series we will In Sha Allah bring forward evidence from the Quran and Sahih Hadith and present what is “The punishment of the grave”, where does it occur and how does it happen? We are told that the soul and the punishment of the grave are matters of ghaib (unseen) and Allah has not given us these details, but there is enough information about this matter for a believer who wants to be guided by the Quran and sahih Hadith. He will never accept self-created misbelief given by these misguided scholars and sheikhs about “the soul returning to the dead body and that it can experience the torment or blessing of the grave”. 

Please read this article with an open heart, give it your full attention and we request humbly if you find any errors, please advise us with the reference and evidence from the Quran and/or Sahih Hadith.

Horror of the punishment of the grave according to Hadith of Prophet (ﷺ)

 أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَسْمَاءَ بِنْتَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ تَقُولُ قَامَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم خَطِيبًا فَذَكَرَ فِتْنَةَ الْقَبْرِ الَّتِي يَفْتَتِنُ فِيهَا الْمَرْءُ، فَلَمَّا ذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ ضَجَّ الْمُسْلِمُونَ ضَجَّةً‏

Narrated Asma’ bint Abi Bakr:Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) once stood up delivering a sermon and mentioned the trial which people will face in the grave. When he mentioned that, the Muslims started shouting loudly.

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Funerals (Al-Janaa’iz), Chapter: The punishment in the grave)

The Punishment of the Grave according to the Quran.

Allah Almighty said in the Quran:

يُثَبِّتُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِالْقَوْلِ الثَّابِتِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ ۖ وَيُضِلُّ اللَّهُ الظَّالِمِينَ ۚ وَيَفْعَلُ اللَّهُ مَا يَشَاءُ

( ابراہیم : 27 )

Allah keeps firm those who believe, with the firm word, in worldly life and in the Hereafter. And Allah sends astray the wrongdoers. And Allah does what He wills.

(Surah Ibrahim 27)

The Prophet (ﷺ) mentioned the following for this ayat:

إِذَا أُقْعِدَ الْمُؤْمِنُ فِي قَبْرِهِ أُتِيَ، ثُمَّ شَهِدَ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ، وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، فَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ ‏{‏يُثَبِّتُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِالْقَوْلِ الثَّابِتِ‏}‏ ‏.‏ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ حَدَّثَنَا غُنْدَرٌ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ بِهَذَا وَزَادَ ‏{‏يُثَبِّتُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا‏}‏ نَزَلَتْ فِي عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ‏.‏

When a faithful believer is made to sit in his grave, then (the angels) come to him and he testifies that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle. And that corresponds to Allah’s statement: Allah will keep firm those who believe with the word that stands firm . . . (14.27).

Narrated Shu’ba:

Same as above and added, “Allah will keep firm those who believe . . . (14.27) was revealed concerning the punishment of the grave.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Funerals (Al-Janaa’iz), Chapter: The punishment in the grave)

الْمُسْلِمُ إِذَا سُئِلَ فِي الْقَبْرِ يَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، فَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ ‏{‏يُثَبِّتُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِالْقَوْلِ الثَّابِتِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الآخِرَةِ‏}‏‏”‏

When a Muslim is questioned in his grave, he will testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ), and that is what is meant by Allah’s Statement:– “Allah will keep firm those who believe with a Word that stands firm in this world and in the Hereafter۔

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Prophetic Commentary on the Qur’an (Tafseer of the Prophet () Surah Ibrahim, Chapter 2 “Allah will keep firm those who believe with, the word that stands firm…” (V.14:27))

It is understood that punishment and reward in the grave is related to the person’s aakhira (hereafter).

Where does the Aakhira (hereafter) of a Person start from?

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ قَالَتْ تُوُفِّيَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي بَيْتِي وَفِي يَوْمِي، وَبَيْنَ سَحْرِي وَنَحْرِي، وَكَانَتْ إِحْدَانَا تُعَوِّذُهُ بِدُعَاءٍ إِذَا مَرِضَ، فَذَهَبْتُ أُعَوِّذُهُ، فَرَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ وَقَالَ ‏ “‏ فِي الرَّفِيقِ الأَعْلَى فِي الرَّفِيقِ الأَعْلَى ‏”‏‏.‏ وَمَرَّ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَفِي يَدِهِ جَرِيدَةٌ رَطْبَةٌ، فَنَظَرَ إِلَيْهِ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَظَنَنْتُ أَنَّ لَهُ بِهَا حَاجَةً فَأَخَذْتُهَا، فَمَضَغْتُ رَأْسَهَا وَنَفَضْتُهَا فَدَفَعْتُهَا إِلَيْهِ، فَاسْتَنَّ بِهَا كَأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانَ مُسْتَنًّا ثُمَّ نَاوَلَنِيهَا فَسَقَطَتْ يَدُهُ ـ أَوْ سَقَطَتْ مِنْ يَدِهِ ـ فَجَمَعَ اللَّهُ بَيْنَ رِيقِي وَرِيقِهِ فِي آخِرِ يَوْمٍ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَأَوَّلِ يَوْمٍ مِنَ الآخِرَةِ‏.‏

Narrated `Aisha:

The Prophet (ﷺ) expired in my house and on the day of my turn, leaning against my chest. One of us (i.e. the Prophet’s wives) used to recite a prayer asking Allah to protect him from all evils when he became sick. So I started asking Allah to protect him from all evils (by reciting a prayer). He raised his head towards the sky and said, “With the highest companions, with the highest companions.” `Abdur- Rahman bin Abu Bakr passed carrying a fresh leaf-stalk of a date-palm and the Prophet (ﷺ) looked at it and I thought that the Prophet (ﷺ) was in need of it (for cleaning his teeth). So I took it (from `Abdur Rahman) and chewed its head and shook it and gave it to the Prophet (ﷺ) who cleaned his teeth with it, in the best way he had ever cleaned his teeth, and then he gave it to me, and suddenly his hand dropped down or it fell from his hand (i.e. he expired). So Allah made my saliva mix with his saliva on his last day on earth and his first day in the Hereafter.

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Military Expeditions led by the Prophet () (Al-Maghaazi), Chapter: The sickness of the Prophet () and his death)

From the above-mentioned Hadith, it is proven that as soon as a person’s soul is captured, the duration of this life has ended, and the matter of the hereafter begins.

What will happen to the dead person at the onset of the hereafter.

الَّذِيْنَ تَتَوَفّٰىهُمُ الْمَلٰٓىِٕكَةُ ظَالِمِيْۤ اَنْفُسِهِمْ١۪ فَاَلْقَوُا السَّلَمَ مَا كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ مِنْ سُوْٓءٍؕ بَلٰۤى اِنَّ اللّٰهَ عَلِيْمٌۢ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُوْنَ۰۰۲۸فَادْخُلُوْۤا اَبْوَابَ جَهَنَّمَ خٰلِدِيْنَ فِيْهَاؕ فَلَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى الْمُتَكَبِّرِيْنَ۰۰

( النحل :28- 29 )

The ones whom the angels take in death [while] wronging themselves, and [who] then offer submission, [saying], “We were not doing any evil.” But, yes! Indeed, Allah is Knowing of what you used to do.So enter the gates of Hell to abide eternally therein, and how wretched is the residence of the arrogant.

(Surah An-Nahl 28/29)

وَ لَوْ تَرٰۤى اِذِ الظّٰلِمُوْنَ فِيْ غَمَرٰتِ الْمَوْتِ وَ الْمَلٰٓىِٕكَةُ بَاسِطُوْۤا اَيْدِيْهِمْ١ۚ اَخْرِجُوْۤا اَنْفُسَكُمْ١ؕ اَلْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ عَذَابَ الْهُوْنِ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَقُوْلُوْنَ عَلَى اللّٰهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ وَ كُنْتُمْ عَنْ اٰيٰتِهٖ تَسْتَكْبِرُوْنَ۠۰۰۹۳

وَ لَقَدْ جِئْتُمُوْنَا فُرَادٰى كَمَا خَلَقْنٰكُمْ اَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَّ تَرَكْتُمْ مَّا خَوَّلْنٰكُمْ وَرَآءَ ظُهُوْرِكُمْ١ۚ وَ مَا نَرٰى مَعَكُمْ شُفَعَآءَكُمُ الَّذِيْنَ زَعَمْتُمْ اَنَّهُمْ فِيْكُمْ شُرَكٰٓؤُا١ؕ لَقَدْ تَّقَطَّعَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَ ضَلَّ عَنْكُمْ مَّا كُنْتُمْ تَزْعُمُوْنَؒ۰۰۹۴

( الانعام ؛ 93/94)

And if you could but see when the wrongdoers are in the overwhelming pangs of death while the angels extend their hands, [saying], “Discharge your souls! Today you will be awarded the punishment of [extreme] humiliation for what you used to say against Allah other than the truth and [that] you were, toward His verses, being arrogant.

Today˺ you have come back to Us all alone as We created you the first time—leaving behind everything We have provided you with. We do not see your intercessors with you—those you claimed were Allah’s partners ˹in worship˺. All your ties have been broken and all your claims have let you down.

(Surah Al-An’am 93/94)

الَّذِيْنَ تَتَوَفّٰىهُمُ الْمَلٰٓىِٕكَةُ طَيِّبِيْنَ١ۙ يَقُوْلُوْنَ سَلٰمٌ عَلَيْكُمُ١ۙ ادْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُوْنَ

The ones whom the angels take in death, [being] good and pure; [the angels] will say, “Peace be upon you. Enter Paradise for what you used to do.”

(Surah An-Nahl 32)

From the above Quranic Verses and Sahih Hadith, it is proven that as soon as a person’s soul is seized, the duration of this life ends, and the matter of akhira (hereafter) begins and the next stage is the start of the reward in Paradise or the torment in hellfire. When the akhira (hereafter) commences Allah keeps the believer firm as Allah keeps the believer firm in the world and according to the above mentioned Sahih Bukhari Hadith narrated by Al-Bara bin Azib, that is in reality also the torment of the grave.

What will happen to the soul after death.

In relation to the belief of the punishment of the grave, in which we will In sha Allah attempt to make clear the most important and basic belief of the punishment of the grave according to the Quran and Sahih Hadith. The vast majority of Ummat e Muslima disagree in regard to this matter and In sha Allah after reading this we will be able to rectify ourselves.

Earlier we discussed according to the Quran and Sahih Hadith when a person dies his Aakhira (Hereafter) life begins immediately. The last moment in this world is followed by the first moment of hereafter as this is what we established from Mother Ayesha when informing us about the moments of the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)’s death time in Sahih Bukhari.

We understood according to the Quran and Sahih Hadith the punishment of the grave begins at the point of death when the angels capture the soul, and the punishment of the grave is also a part of the Punishment of hereafter.

The critical question is, what happens next to the soul as the life of the hereafter begins according to the Quran and sahih Hadith

In Surah Yaseen:20 of the Quran, Allah has mentioned about a Muslim man who warned people to follow the messenger.

Allah had sent to this nation two Messengers and then a third Messenger to support and they said to their nation that we are Messengers and we have been sent by Allah. Our only duty is to convey the open message of Allah the Lord of the Universe. But the unfortunate nation rejected the message due to those prophets being human. The Man, from Surah Yaseen who had travelled from the far end of the city. As Allah has mentioned in Surah Yaseen:

وَ جَآءَ مِنْ اَقْصَا الْمَدِيْنَةِ رَجُلٌ يَّسْعٰى قَالَ يٰقَوْمِ اتَّبِعُوا الْمُرْسَلِيْنَۙ

And there came from the farthest end of the city a man, running. He said, “O my people, follow the messengers.

( Yaseen : 20)

اتَّبِعُوْا مَنْ لَّا يَسْـَٔلُكُمْ اَجْرًا وَّ هُمْ مُّهْتَدُوْنَ

Follow those who do not ask of you [any] payment, and they are [rightly] guided.

( Yaseen : 21 )

وَ مَا لِيَ لَاۤ اَعْبُدُ الَّذِيْ فَطَرَنِيْ وَ اِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُوْنَ

And why should I not worship He who created me and to whom you will be returned?

( Yaseen : 22 )

ءَاَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُوْنِهٖۤ اٰلِهَةً اِنْ يُّرِدْنِ الرَّحْمٰنُ بِضُرٍّ لَّا تُغْنِ عَنِّيْ شَفَاعَتُهُمْ شَيْـًٔا وَّ لَا يُنْقِذُوْنِۚ

Should I take other than Him [false] deities [while], if the Most Merciful intends for me some adversity, their intercession will not avail me at all, nor can they save me?

( Yaseen: 23 )

اِنِّيْۤ اِذًا لَّفِيْ ضَلٰلٍ مُّبِيْنٍ

Indeed, I would then be in manifest error.

(Yaseen : 24)

اِنِّيْۤ اٰمَنْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ فَاسْمَعُوْنِ

Indeed, I have believed in your Lord, so listen to me.”

 (Yaseen : 25)

After listening to this his people martyred him so what happened after this, Allah has mentioned in Quran

قِيْلَ ادْخُلِ الْجَنَّةَ

It was said, “Enter Paradise.” He said, “I wish my people could know

( Yaseen : 26 )

قَالَ يٰلَيْتَ قَوْمِيْ يَعْلَمُوْنَ

Of how my Lord has forgiven me and placed me among the honoured.

That he was forgiven and honoured by Allah, which means he was entered into Paradise immediately after death although he was concerned about the people from his nation and wished they would have known what had happened to him.

 The moment of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)’s death

عَنْ أَنَسٍ، قَالَ لَمَّا ثَقُلَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم جَعَلَ يَتَغَشَّاهُ، فَقَالَتْ فَاطِمَةُ ـ عَلَيْهَا السَّلاَمُ ـ وَاكَرْبَ أَبَاهُ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لَهَا ‏ “‏ .لَيْسَ عَلَى أَبِيكِ كَرْبٌ بَعْدَ الْيَوْمِ ‏”‏‏.‏ فَلَمَّا مَاتَ قَالَتْ يَا أَبَتَاهْ، أَجَابَ رَبًّا دَعَاهُ، يَا أَبَتَاهْ مَنْ جَنَّةُ الْفِرْدَوْسِ مَأْوَاهُ، يَا أَبَتَاهْ إِلَى جِبْرِيلَ نَنْعَاهْ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا دُفِنَ قَالَتْ فَاطِمَةُ ـ عَلَيْهَا السَّلاَمُ ـ يَا أَنَسُ، أَطَابَتْ أَنْفُسُكُمْ أَنْ تَحْثُوا عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم التُّرَابَ

(صحیح البخاری: کتاب المغازی؛ بَابُ مَرَضِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَوَفَاتِهِ )

Narrated Anas:When the ailment of the Prophet (ﷺ) got aggravated, he became unconscious whereupon Fatima said, “Oh, how distressed my father is!” He said, “Your father will have no more distress after today.” When he expired, she said, “O Father! Who has responded to the call of the Lord Who has invited him! O Father, whose dwelling place is the Garden of Paradise (i.e. Al-Firdaus)! O Father! We convey this news (of your death) to Gabriel.” When he was buried, Fatima said, “O Anas! Do you feel pleased to throw earth over Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)?”

Sahih Bukhari, Book of Military Expeditions led by the Prophet () (Al-Maghaazi), Chapter: The sickness of the Prophet () and his death.

Now we can clearly see in this hadith that, at the moment of the Prophets (ﷺ) death the matter was so instant that Fatima thought that Gabriel would not even know that Prophet (ﷺ) has died. But her belief is clear from her words that the Prophet (ﷺ) after his death has reached Paradise (Al-Firdaus) immediately.

The story of the two men from among Bani Isra’il

قَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ “‏ كَانَ رَجُلاَنِ فِي بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مُتَآخِيَيْنِ فَكَانَ أَحَدُهُمَا يُذْنِبُ وَالآخَرُ مُجْتَهِدٌ فِي الْعِبَادَةِ فَكَانَ لاَ يَزَالُ الْمُجْتَهِدُ يَرَى الآخَرَ عَلَى الذَّنْبِ فَيَقُولُ أَقْصِرْ ‏.‏ فَوَجَدَهُ يَوْمًا عَلَى ذَنْبٍ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَقْصِرْ فَقَالَ خَلِّنِي وَرَبِّي أَبُعِثْتَ عَلَىَّ رَقِيبًا فَقَالَ وَاللَّهِ لاَ يَغْفِرُ اللَّهُ لَكَ أَوْ لاَ يُدْخِلُكَ اللَّهُ الْجَنَّةَ ‏.‏ فَقُبِضَ أَرْوَاحُهُمَا فَاجْتَمَعَا عِنْدَ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ فَقَالَ لِهَذَا الْمُجْتَهِدِ أَكُنْتَ بِي عَالِمًا أَوْ كُنْتَ عَلَى مَا فِي يَدِي قَادِرًا وَقَالَ لِلْمُذْنِبِ اذْهَبْ فَادْخُلِ الْجَنَّةَ بِرَحْمَتِي وَقَالَ لِلآخَرِ اذْهَبُوا بِهِ إِلَى النَّارِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَتَكَلَّمَ بِكَلِمَةٍ أَوْبَقَتْ دُنْيَاهُ وَآخِرَتَهُ ‏.‏

( سنن ابی داؤد، کتاب الادب،بَابٌ فِي النَّهْيِ عَنِ البَغْيِ؛ حكم الألباني: صحيح)

Narrated Abu Hurayrah:I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: There were two men among Banu Isra’il, who were striving for the same goal. One of them would commit sin and the other would strive to do his best in the world. The man who exerted himself in worship continued to see the other in sin.

He would say: Refrain from it. One day he found him in sin and said to him: Refrain from it.

He said: Leave me alone with my Lord. Have you been sent as a watchman over me? He said: I swear by Allah, Allah will not forgive you, nor will he admit you to Paradise. Then their souls were taken back (by Allah), and they met together with the Lord of the worlds.

He (Allah) said to this man who had striven hard in worship; Had you knowledge about Me or had you power over that which I had in My hand? He said to the man who sinned: Go and enter Paradise by My mercy. He said about the other: Take him to Hell.

AbuHurayrah said: By Him in Whose hand my soul is, he spoke a word by which this world and the next world of his were destroyed.

Sunan Abi Dawud, Book of General Behaviour (Kitab Al-Adab), Chapter: Regarding the prohibition of wronging others

From this hadith we can see that the belief that after death when the soul has been captured it does not re-enter in the worldly grave but travels towards Allah. We are aware, Allah is at his Throne which is above Al Firdaus, Paradise. Allah ordered one of the men to Paradise and the other to hell and there is no mention of the return to a worldly grave.

People of Nuh (عليه السلام) were drowned and then put into the Hell Fire

مِمَّا خَطِيْٓـٰٔتِهِمْ۠ اُغْرِقُوْا فَاُدْخِلُوْا نَارًا١ۙ۬ فَلَمْ يَجِدُوْا لَهُمْ مِّنْ دُوْنِ اللّٰهِ اَنْصَارًا

Because of their sins they were drowned and put into the Fire, and they found not for themselves besides Allah [any] helpers.

(Surah Nuh 25)

From the verse above it is clear that nation of Nuh (عليه السلام) were killed when Allah drowned them as punishment and then straight away they entered into the Fire that means hell. Their dead bodies were here in this world and there was no one to carry their dead bodies on four shoulders to bury them in this worldly grave, so after burying their dead bodies would they have heard the footsteps of those who would of buried them and in this worldly grave would have answered angel’s questions.

But still after death they entered in hell and that’s their punishment of grave.

Allah’s punishment on the wives of Nuh (عليه السلام) and lut (عليه السلام)

ضَرَبَ اللّٰهُ مَثَلًا لِّلَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوا امْرَاَتَ نُوْحٍ وَّ امْرَاَتَ لُوْطٍ١ؕ كَانَتَا تَحْتَ عَبْدَيْنِ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا صَالِحَيْنِ فَخَانَتٰهُمَا فَلَمْ يُغْنِيَا عَنْهُمَا مِنَ اللّٰهِ شَيْـًٔا وَّ قِيْلَ ادْخُلَا النَّارَ مَعَ الدّٰخِلِيْنَ

Allah presents an example of those who disbelieved: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. They were under two of Our righteous servants but betrayed them, so those prophets did not avail them from Allah at all, and it was said, “Enter the Fire with those who enter.”

(Surah At-Tahrim 10)

The above prophets’ wives denied the verses of Allah, and after their death they were entered into the hellfire.

Punishment of the grave given to Amr bin ‘Amir bin Luhai Al-Khuza`i

أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ، رضى الله عنها قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ رَأَيْتُ جَهَنَّمَ يَحْطِمُ بَعْضُهَا بَعْضًا، وَرَأَيْتُ عَمْرًا يَجُرُّ قُصْبَهُ، وَهْوَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ سَيَّبَ السَّوَائِبَ ‏

( بخاری، کتاب التفسیر ، بَابُ {مَا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ مِنْ بَحِيرَةٍ وَلاَ سَائِبَةٍ، وَلاَ وَصِيلَةٍ وَلاَ حَامٍ}

Narrated `Aisha:Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “I saw Hell and its different portions were consuming each other and saw `Amr dragging his intestines (in it), and he was the first person to establish the tradition of letting animals loose (for the idols).

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Prophetic Commentary on the Qur’an (Tafseer of the Prophet ())

Punishment of the grave given to Abu Thumama ‘Amr b. Malik

وَرَأَيْتُ أَبَا ثُمَامَةَ عَمْرَو بْنَ مَالِكٍ يَجُرُّ قُصْبَهُ فِي النَّارِ

(مسلم ، کتاب الکسوف ، بَابُ مَا عُرِضَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي صَلَاةِ الْكُسُوفِ مِنْ أَمْرِ الْجَنَّةِ وَالنَّارِ)‏

And I saw Abu Thumama ‘Amr b. Malik who was dragging his intestines in Hell.

(Sahih Muslim, The Book of Prayer – Eclipses, Chapter: What Was Shown To The Prophet Of Paradise And Hell During The Eclipse Prayer)

Punishment of the grave given to the one who locked up the cat.

Prophet ﷺsaid:

عُذِّبَتِ امْرَأَةٌ فِي هِرَّةٍ حَبَسَتْهَا، حَتَّى مَاتَتْ جُوعًا، فَدَخَلَتْ فِيهَا النَّارَ ـ قَالَ فَقَالَ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ ـ لاَ أَنْتِ أَطْعَمْتِهَا وَلاَ سَقَيْتِهَا حِينَ حَبَسْتِيهَا، وَلاَ أَنْتِ أَرْسَلْتِيهَا فَأَكَلَتْ مِنْ خَشَاشِ الأَرْضِ ‏

(بخاری، کتاب المساقاۃ ، بَابُ فَضْلِ سَقْيِ المَاءِ )‏

A woman was tortured and was put in Hell because of a cat which she had kept locked till it died of hunger.” Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) further said, (Allah knows better) Allah said (to the woman), ‘You neither fed it nor watered when you locked it up, nor did you set it free to eat the insects of the earth.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Distribution of Water, Chapter: The superiority of providing water)

From the Quran and Sahih Hadith it is clear that after death the place of reward and punishment is Paradise and Hell. In addition to this evidence there are substantial evidence in the Quran and Sahih Hadith which we will In Sha Allah bring forward. In short, from the Quran and sahih Hadith it is evident that the actual place of reward and punishment is Paradise and Hell as we have discussed how many are not buried in a traditional manner and thus are not given a worldly grave due to such examples such as cremation, drowning or bodies unable to be recovered for burial purposes.

Previously we presented facts regarding the torment of the grave with evidence from the Quran and sahih Hadith. In Sha Allah this will enable us to rectify the various opinions we have currently in the Ummat and conclude the correct belief according to the Quran and sahih hadith

We also concluded that after death the soul according to the Quran and sahih Hadith immediately either enters Paradise for reward or Hell for punishment. Allah in the (Quran) and the Prophet informed us regarding, people who are going through reward and punishment in the sahih Hadith in which all of them the place of punishment is Hell and place of reward is Paradise.

What happens to the body after death

After this the question arises in our minds if the soul is going through this in Paradise or Hell so then what happens to the dead body after death?

We need to understand in the basic form that a human comprises of two things which make it alive, the soul and the body. When the soul first enters the body in the womb, it becomes life and when the soul is extracted it becomes a dead body

The Condition of human body after death

When a human’s appointed time has come to an end, by Allah’s command the angels of death are sent to extract the soul from the living body. The body will now remain soulless and in this state until the day of resurrection.

The bodies of the dead will be raised on the day of Resurrection

ثُمَّ اِنَّكُمْ بَعْدَ ذٰلِكَ لَمَيِّتُوْنَؕ۝ثُمَّ اِنَّكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيٰمَةِ تُبْعَثُوْنَ

Then indeed, after that you are to die.Then indeed you, on the Day of Resurrection, will be resurrected.

(Surah Mu’minun 15-16)

The law of Allah confirms that the bodies of the dead will not be raised before the day of judgement.

The Dead body has no consciousness or sense

اَمْوَاتٌ غَيْرُ اَحْيَآءٍ١ۚ وَ مَا يَشْعُرُوْنَ١ۙ اَيَّانَ يُبْعَثُوْنَؒ

They are, [in fact], dead, not alive, and they do not perceive when they will be resurrected.

(Surah An-Nahl 21)

We can extract from the above that the dead body has no consciousness or sense after the soul has departed the body until the day of Judgement. It neither feels cold nor heat or any pain.

The Dead do not hear or respond. These are attributes of the alive, the dead will be brought back to life on the day of resurrection

اِنَّمَا يَسْتَجِيْبُ الَّذِيْنَ يَسْمَعُوْنَ١ؔؕ وَ الْمَوْتٰى يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللّٰهُ ثُمَّ اِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُوْنَؐ

Only those who hear will respond. But the dead – Allah will resurrect them; then to Him they will be returned.

(Surah Al-An’am 36)

The Dead do not hear

اِنَّكَ لَا تُسْمِعُ الْمَوْتٰى وَ لَا تُسْمِعُ الصُّمَّ الدُّعَآءَ اِذَا وَلَّوْا مُدْبِرِيْنَ

Indeed, you will not make the dead hear, nor will you make the deaf hear the call when they have turned their backs retreating.

 (Surah An-Naml 80)

وَ مَا يَسْتَوِي الْاَحْيَآءُ وَ لَا الْاَمْوَاتُ١ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ يُسْمِعُ مَنْ يَّشَآءُ١ۚ وَ مَاۤ اَنْتَ بِمُسْمِعٍ مَّنْ فِي الْقُبُوْرِ

And not equal are the living and the dead. Indeed, Allah causes to hear whom He wills, but you cannot make hear those in the graves.

 (Surah Fatir 22)

It is impossible for the dead to respond

وَ لَوْ اَنَّنَا نَزَّلْنَاۤ اِلَيْهِمُ الْمَلٰٓىِٕكَةَ وَ كَلَّمَهُمُ الْمَوْتٰى وَ حَشَرْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ قُبُلًا مَّا كَانُوْا لِيُؤْمِنُوْۤا اِلَّاۤ اَنْ يَّشَآءَ اللّٰهُ وَ لٰكِنَّ اَكْثَرَهُمْ يَجْهَلُوْنَ

And even if We had sent down to them the angels [with the message] and the dead spoke to them [of it] and We gathered together every [created] thing in front of them, they would not believe unless Allah should will. But most of them, [of that], are ignorant.

 (Surah Al An’am 111)

It is clear from the book of Allah that dead bodies do not have any consciousness or sense, they are unable to hear or respond (speak), after death, the body gradually decays and eventually returns to the soil.

اَوَ لَمْ يَرَ الْاِنْسَانُ اَنَّا خَلَقْنٰهُ مِنْ نُّطْفَةٍ فَاِذَا هُوَ خَصِيْمٌ مُّبِيْنٌ Oوَ ضَرَبَ لَنَا مَثَلًا وَّ نَسِيَ خَلْقَهٗ١ؕ قَالَ مَنْ يُّحْيِ الْعِظَامَ وَ هِيَ رَمِيْمٌ قُلْ يُحْيِيْهَا الَّذِيْۤ اَنْشَاَهَاۤ اَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ١ؕ وَ هُوَ بِكُلِّ خَلْقٍ عَلِيْمُۙ

Does man not consider that We created him from a [mere] sperm-drop – then at once he is a clear adversary?

And he presents for Us an example and forgets his [own] creation. He says, “Who will give life to bones while they are disintegrated?”

Say, “He will give them life who produced them the first time; and He is, of all creation, Knowing.”

(Surah Yaseen 77-79)

ءَاِذَا مِتْنَا وَ كُنَّا تُرَابًا وَّ عِظَامًا ءَاِنَّا لَمَبْعُوْثُوْنَ۠ۙ۰۰۱۶اَوَ اٰبَآؤُنَا الْاَوَّلُوْنَؕ۰۰۱۷قُلْ نَعَمْ وَ اَنْتُمْ دَاخِرُوْنَۚ۰۰۱۸

When we have died and become dust and bones, are we indeed to be resurrected?

And our forefathers [as well]?”Say, “Yes, and you will be [rendered] contemptible.”

(Surah As-Saffat 16-18)

Prophet ﷺsaid:

كُلُّ ابْنِ آدَمَ يَأْكُلُهُ التُّرَابُ إِلاَّ عَجْبَ الذَّنَبِ مِنْهُ خُلِقَ وَفِيهِ يُرَكَّبُ

(صحیح البخاری: کتاب تفسیر القرآن، بَابُ {يَوْمَ يُنْفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ فَتَأْتُونَ أَفْوَاجًا} [النبأ: 18]: زُمَرًا)

The earth would consume all of the son of Adam except his (Ajab a Zanab) tailbone. From it he was created, and from it he will be recreated (on the Day of Resurrection).

(Sahih Muslim, The Book of Tribulations and Portents of the Last Hour, Chapter: Between The Blasts (Of The Trumpet))

And in Quran Allah has said

قَدْ عَلِمْنَا مَا تَنْقُصُ الْاَرْضُ مِنْهُمْ١ۚ وَ عِنْدَنَا كِتٰبٌ حَفِيْظٌ

We know what the earth diminishes of them, and with Us is a retaining record.

(Surah Qaf 4)

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ مَا بَيْنَ النَّفْخَتَيْنِ أَرْبَعُونَ ‏”‏‏.‏ قَالَ أَرْبَعُونَ يَوْمًا قَالَ أَبَيْتُ‏.‏ قَالَ أَرْبَعُونَ شَهْرًا قَالَ أَبَيْتُ‏.‏ قَالَ أَرْبَعُونَ سَنَةً قَالَ أَبَيْتُ‏.‏ قَالَ:ثُمَّ يُنْزِلُ اللَّهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً‏.‏ فَيَنْبُتُونَ كَمَا يَنْبُتُ الْبَقْلُ لَيْسَ مِنَ الإِنْسَانِ شَىْءٌ إِلاَّ يَبْلَى إِلاَّ عَظْمًا وَاحِدًا وَهْوَ عَجْبُ الذَّنَبِ، وَمِنْهُ يُرَكَّبُ الْخَلْقُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ

Abu Huraira said, “Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, ‘Between the two sounds of the trumpet, there will be forty.” Somebody asked Abu Huraira, “Forty days?” But he refused to reply. Then he asked, “Forty months?” He refused to reply. Then he asked, “Forty years?” Again, he refused to reply. Abu Huraira added. “Then (after this period) Allah will send water from the sky and then the dead bodies will grow like vegetation grows, There is nothing of the human body that does not decay except one bone; that is the little bone at the end of the coccyx of which the human body will be recreated on the Day of Resurrection.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Prophetic Commentary on the Qur’an (Tafseer of the Prophet ()) – كتاب التفسير)

The above Verses of the Quran and Sahih Hadith prove that after death the soul enters for either reward or punishment to Paradise or Hell. Gradually this corpse starts to decay and eventually returns to the soil with the exclusion of Ajab uz Zanab coccyx (tailbone) from which the human body will be recreated on the day of resurrection. The recreation of this body, itself is evidence that they (dead body) decays hence the recreation.

Further, in Surah Fatir verses 19-22 Allah has given examples of opposite things to make us understand that the bodies of the living and the dead are not the same.

وَ مَا يَسْتَوِي الْاَعْمٰى وَ الْبَصِيْرُ

Not equal are the blind and the seeing,

وَ لَا الظُّلُمٰتُ وَ لَا النُّوْرُۙ

Nor are the darknesses and the light,

وَ لَا الظِّلُّ وَ لَا الْحَرُوْرُۚ

Nor are the shade and the heat,

وَ مَا يَسْتَوِي الْاَحْيَآءُ وَ لَا الْاَمْوَاتُ١ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ يُسْمِعُ مَنْ يَّشَآءُ١ۚ وَ مَاۤ اَنْتَ بِمُسْمِعٍ مَّنْ فِي الْقُبُوْرِ

And not equal are the living and the dead. Indeed, Allah causes to hear whom He wills, but you cannot make hear those in the graves.

 (Surah Fatir 19-22)

It means the blind or those who can see are not the same. Dark and light, shade and heat are opposite to each other. Exactly the same for the living and the dead are opposite to each other they do not have same qualities. The one who is alive have their senses, he has a functioning brain to think, eyes to see, a nose to smell, ears to hear whereas the dead body has none of these attributes until the day of resurrection, so the dead body has no consciousness or sense.

If the dead body was to experience pain, then why is it that a body being cremated is never seen to react in anyway due to the pain of heat. Allah has said this dead body decomposes so when the face, tongue, eyes and ears have decomposed how are they able to speak, hear or see? The dead body is simply in a state of decomposition and eventually will return to the soil. The body does not have the ability to feel any pain or react.

This body will be recreated on the day of resurrection as Allah has said in the Quran:

اَيَحْسَبُ الْاِنْسَانُ اَلَّنْ نَّجْمَعَ عِظَامَهٗ

Does man think that We will not assemble his bones?

بَلٰى قٰدِرِيْنَ عَلٰۤى اَنْ نُّسَوِّيَ بَنَانَهٗ

Yes. [We are] Able [even] to proportion his fingertips.

 (Surah Al-Qiyamah 3-4)

اَفَعَيِيْنَا بِالْخَلْقِ الْاَوَّلِ١ؕ بَلْ هُمْ فِيْ لَبْسٍ مِّنْ خَلْقٍ جَدِيْدٍ

Did We fail in the first creation? But they are in confusion over a new creation.

 (Surah Qaf 15)

The decomposed body will be recreated as confirmed in the Hadith stated above. It will be exclusively on the day of resurrection, and it is the same day for which Allah has said:

ثُمَّ اِنَّكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيٰمَةِ تُبْعَثُوْنَ

Then indeed you, on the Day of Resurrection, will be resurrected.

(Surah Al-Mu’minun 16)

From the above evidences, it is proven that from the moment of death to the day of resurrection, reward or punishment has no connection with the body which is made of clay and no longer has consciousness. After death the body begins to decompose and eventually returns to the soil.

From the above evidences of Quran and Hadith, the following facts have been proved:

  • The hereafter of the dead commences as he dies.
  • The initial stage of the hereafter when the soul enters Paradise or Hell is where the reward or punishment is.
  • Immediately after death, the body no longer has consciousness or sense.
  • Gradually the physical corpse starts decomposing and as per the Quran, it will only be recreated on the day of resurrection.

The torment of the grave is the first step of the torment of the hereafter and in this verse of the Quran:

وَ مِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُمْ مِّنَ الْاَعْرَابِ مُنٰفِقُوْنَ١ۛؕ وَ مِنْ اَهْلِ الْمَدِيْنَةِ١ؔۛ۫ مَرَدُوْا عَلَى النِّفَاقِ١۫ لَا تَعْلَمُهُمْ١ؕ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ١ؕ سَنُعَذِّبُهُمْ مَّرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّوْنَ اِلٰى عَذَابٍ عَظِيْمٍ

And among the bedouins round about you, some are hypocrites, and so are some among the people of Al-Madinah, they exaggerate and persist in hypocrisy, you (O Muhammad (ﷺ)) know them not, We know them. We shall punish them twice, and thereafter they shall be brought back to a great (horrible) torment.

 (Surah Tawbah 101)

In this verse three punishments have been mentioned:

  • First punishment: in this world
  • Second punishment: starts as they die
  • Third punishment: will commence after the day of Judgement.

This verse of the Quran has been explained in another verse of the Quran:

وَ جٰوَزْنَا بِبَنِيْۤ اِسْرَآءِيْلَ الْبَحْرَ فَاَتْبَعَهُمْ فِرْعَوْنُ وَ جُنُوْدُهٗ بَغْيًا وَّ عَدْوًا١ؕ حَتّٰۤى اِذَاۤ اَدْرَكَهُ الْغَرَقُ١ۙ قَالَ اٰمَنْتُ اَنَّهٗ لَاۤ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا الَّذِيْۤ اٰمَنَتْ بِهٖ بَنُوْۤا اِسْرَآءِيْلَ وَ اَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِيْنَ

And We took the Children of Israel across the sea, and Pharaoh and his soldiers pursued them in tyranny and enmity until, when drowning overtook him, he said, “I believe that there is no deity except that in whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am of the Muslims.

(Surah Yunus 90)

Further has been mentioned about People of Pharaoh:

فَوَقٰىهُ اللّٰهُ سَيِّاٰتِ مَا مَكَرُوْا وَ حَاقَ بِاٰلِ فِرْعَوْنَ سُوْٓءُ الْعَذَابِ

So Allah protected him from the evils they plotted, and the people of Pharaoh were enveloped by the worst of punishment

اَلنَّارُ يُعْرَضُوْنَ عَلَيْهَا غُدُوًّا وَّ عَشِيًّا١ۚ وَ يَوْمَ تَقُوْمُ السَّاعَةُ١۫ اَدْخِلُوْۤا اٰلَ فِرْعَوْنَ اَشَدَّ الْعَذَابِ

The Fire, they are exposed to it morning and evening. And the Day the Hour appears [it will be said], “Make the people of Pharaoh enter the severest punishment.”

 (Surah Ghafir 45-46)

First Punishment on People of Pharaoh:

فَوَقٰىهُ اللّٰهُ سَيِّاٰتِ مَا مَكَرُوْا وَ حَاقَ بِاٰلِ فِرْعَوْنَ سُوْٓءُ الْعَذَابِ

So Allah protected him from the evils they plotted, and the people of Pharaoh were enveloped by the worst of punishment

(Surah Ghafir 45)

What was the worst of the torment in this world?

وَ جٰوَزْنَا بِبَنِيْۤ اِسْرَآءِيْلَ الْبَحْرَ فَاَتْبَعَهُمْ فِرْعَوْنُ وَ جُنُوْدُهٗ بَغْيًا وَّ عَدْوًا١ؕ حَتّٰۤى اِذَاۤ اَدْرَكَهُ الْغَرَقُ١ۙ قَالَ اٰمَنْتُ اَنَّهٗ لَاۤ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا الَّذِيْۤ اٰمَنَتْ بِهٖ بَنُوْۤا اِسْرَآءِيْلَ وَ اَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِيْنَ۰۰۹۰

And We took the Children of Israel across the sea, and Pharaoh and his soldiers pursued them in tyranny and enmity until, when drowning overtook him, he said: I believe that there is no deity except that in whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am of the Muslims.

(Surah Yunus 90)

Second Punishment:

اَلنَّارُ يُعْرَضُوْنَ عَلَيْهَا غُدُوًّا وَّ عَشِيًّا١ۚ وَ يَوْمَ تَقُوْمُ السَّاعَةُ١۫ اَدْخِلُوْۤا اٰلَ فِرْعَوْنَ اَشَدَّ الْعَذَابِ۰۰۴۶

The Fire, they are exposed to it morning and evening ( i.e full time).

 And the Day the Hour appears [it will be said], Make the people of Pharaoh enter the severest punishment.

(Surah Ghafir 46)

Third Punishment:

وَ يَوْمَ تَقُوْمُ السَّاعَةُ١۫ اَدْخِلُوْۤا اٰلَ فِرْعَوْنَ اَشَدَّ الْعَذَابِ۰۰۴۶

…And the Day the Hour appears [it will be said], “Make the people of Pharaoh enter the severest punishment.”

(Surah Ghafir 46)

It is made clear from these verses that both punishments, the punishment of the grave and the punishment after the day of judgement are both in Hell.

Allah commanded to mankind when He sent them down to earth:

قُلْنَا اهْبِطُوْا مِنْهَا جَمِيْعًا١ۚ فَاِمَّا يَاْتِيَنَّكُمْ مِّنِّيْ هُدًى فَمَنْ تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ لَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُوْنَ  ۝ وَ الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْا وَ كَذَّبُوْا بِاٰيٰتِنَاۤ اُولٰٓىِٕكَ اَصْحٰبُ النَّارِ١ۚ هُمْ فِيْهَا خٰلِدُوْنَؒ

We said : Go down from it, all of you. And when guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance – there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.

And those who disbelieve and deny Our signs – those will be companions of the Fire; they will abide therein eternally.

(Surah Al-Baqarah 38-39)

وَعَدَ اللّٰهُ الْمُنٰفِقِيْنَ وَ الْمُنٰفِقٰتِ وَ الْكُفَّارَ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ خٰلِدِيْنَ فِيْهَا١ؕ هِيَ حَسْبُهُمْ١ۚ وَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللّٰهُ١ۚ وَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُّقِيْمٌۙ

Allah has promised the hypocrite men and hypocrite women and the disbelievers the fire of Hell, wherein they will abide eternally. It is sufficient for them. And Allah has cursed them, and for them is an enduring punishment.

(Surah Tawbah 68)

وَعَدَ اللّٰهُ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ وَ الْمُؤْمِنٰتِ جَنّٰتٍ تَجْرِيْ مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْاَنْهٰرُ خٰلِدِيْنَ فِيْهَا وَ مَسٰكِنَ طَيِّبَةً فِيْ جَنّٰتِ عَدْنٍ١ؕ وَ رِضْوَانٌ مِّنَ اللّٰهِ اَكْبَرُ١ؕ ذٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيْمُؒ

Allah has promised the believing men and believing women gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide eternally, and pleasant dwellings in gardens of perpetual residence; but approval from Allah is greater. It is that which is the great attainment.

(Surah Tawbah 72)

And where would this promise be fulfilled?

Allah said:

وَ فِي السَّمَآءِ رِزْقُكُمْ وَ مَا تُوْعَدُوْنَ

And in the heaven is your provision and whatever you are promised.

(Surah Az-Zariyat 22)

Wherever in the Quran reward or torment has been mentioned, Paradise or Hell has also been mentioned. It should be noted that when the Quran mentions the decomposition of the body, nothing has been mentioned of this body being punished.

The reality is that various sects manipulate hadith to attempt to present proof of their misbelief that the dead body is being punished or tormented in the worldly grave. In Sha Allah we will address this as a separate issue below with evidence from the Quran and sahih hadith only.

Following Hadiths clarify this matter even better:

عَنْ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ، أَنَّ نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَمَرَ يَوْمَ بَدْرٍ بِأَرْبَعَةٍ وَعِشْرِينَ رَجُلاً مِنْ صَنَادِيدِ قُرَيْشٍ فَقُذِفُوا فِي طَوِيٍّ مِنْ أَطْوَاءِ بَدْرٍ خَبِيثٍ مُخْبِثٍ، وَكَانَ إِذَا ظَهَرَ عَلَى قَوْمٍ أَقَامَ بِالْعَرْصَةِ ثَلاَثَ لَيَالٍ، فَلَمَّا كَانَ بِبَدْرٍ الْيَوْمَ الثَّالِثَ، أَمَرَ بِرَاحِلَتِهِ فَشُدَّ عَلَيْهَا رَحْلُهَا، ثُمَّ مَشَى وَاتَّبَعَهُ أَصْحَابُهُ وَقَالُوا مَا نُرَى يَنْطَلِقُ إِلاَّ لِبَعْضِ حَاجَتِهِ، حَتَّى قَامَ عَلَى شَفَةِ الرَّكِيِّ، فَجَعَلَ يُنَادِيهِمْ بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ وَأَسْمَاءِ آبَائِهِمْ ‏”‏ يَا فُلاَنُ بْنَ فُلاَنٍ، وَيَا فُلاَنُ بْنَ فُلاَنٍ، أَيَسُرُّكُمْ أَنَّكُمْ أَطَعْتُمُ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَإِنَّا قَدْ وَجَدْنَا مَا وَعَدَنَا رَبُّنَا حَقًّا، فَهَلْ وَجَدْتُمْ مَا وَعَدَ رَبُّكُمْ حَقًّا ‏”‏‏.‏ قَالَ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، مَا تُكَلِّمُ مِنْ أَجْسَادٍ لاَ أَرْوَاحَ لَهَا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ وَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ، مَا أَنْتُمْ بِأَسْمَعَ لِمَا أَقُولُ مِنْهُمْ

( بخاری ، کتاب المغازی ، بَابُ قَتْلِ أَبِي جَهْلٍ )

Narrated Abu Talha:On the day of Badr, the Prophet (ﷺ) ordered that the corpses of twenty four leaders of Quraish should be thrown into one of the dirty dry wells of Badr. (It was a habit of the Prophet (ﷺ) that whenever he conquered some people, he used to stay at the battle-field for three nights. So, on the third day of the battle of Badr, he ordered that his she-camel be saddled, then he set out, and his companions followed him saying among themselves.” “Definitely he (i.e. the Prophet) is proceeding for some great purpose.” When he halted at the edge of the well, he addressed the corpses of the Quraish infidels by their names and their fathers’ names, “O so-and-so, son of so-and-so and O so-and-so, son of so-and so! Would it have pleased you if you had obeyed Allah and His Apostle? We have found true what our Lord promised us. Have you too found true what your Lord promised you? “`Umar said, “O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! You are speaking to bodies that have no souls!” Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “By Him in Whose Hand Muhammad’s soul is, you do not hear, what I say better than they do.

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Military Expeditions led by the Prophet () (Al-Maghaazi), Chapter: The killing of Abu Jahl).

When the same matter was presented in front of Mother Ayesha (R.A)

عَنْ هِشَامٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ ذُكِرَ عِنْدَ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ أَنَّ ابْنَ عُمَرَ رَفَعَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ إِنَّ الْمَيِّتَ يُعَذَّبُ فِي قَبْرِهِ بِبُكَاءِ أَهْلِهِ ‏”‏‏.‏ فَقَالَتْ إِنَّمَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ إِنَّهُ لَيُعَذَّبُ بِخَطِيئَتِهِ وَذَنْبِهِ، وَإِنَّ أَهْلَهُ لَيَبْكُونَ عَلَيْهِ الآنَ ‏”‏‏.‏ قَالَتْ وَذَاكَ مِثْلُ قَوْلِهِ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَامَ عَلَى الْقَلِيبِ وَفِيهِ قَتْلَى بَدْرٍ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ، فَقَالَ لَهُمْ مَا قَالَ إِنَّهُمْ لَيَسْمَعُونَ مَا أَقُولُ‏.‏ إِنَّمَا قَالَ ‏”‏ إِنَّهُمُ الآنَ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ مَا كُنْتُ أَقُولُ لَهُمْ حَقٌّ ‏”‏‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَرَأَتْ ‏{‏إِنَّكَ لاَ تُسْمِعُ الْمَوْتَى‏}‏ ‏{‏وَمَا أَنْتَ بِمُسْمِعٍ مَنْ فِي الْقُبُورِ‏}‏ تَقُولُ حِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا مَقَاعِدَهُمْ مِنَ النَّارِ‏.‏

Narrated Hisham’s father:It was mentioned before `Aisha that Ibn `Umar attributed the following statement to the Prophet (ﷺ) “The dead person is punished in the grave because of the crying and lamentation Of his family.” On that, `Aisha said, “But Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, ‘The dead person is punished for his crimes and sins while his family cry over him then.” She added, “And this is similar to the statement of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) when he stood by the (edge of the) well which contained the corpses of the pagans killed at Badr, ‘They hear what I say.’ She added, “But he said now they know very well what I used to tell them was the truth.” `Aisha then recited: ‘You cannot make the dead hear.’ (30.52) and ‘You cannot make those who are in their Graves, hear you.’ (35.22) that is, when they had taken their places in the (Hell) Fire.

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Military Expeditions led by the Prophet () (Al-Maghaazi), Chapter: The killing of Abu Jahl).

Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) said Have you too found true what your Lord promised you? From this we can see when they reached their place in hell, they found Allah’s promise to be true. It is made clear to us that regardless of a body being buried, cremated or any other method of the body being eventually broken down, every soul after death receives the reward or punishment and it is not in this world but in a different realm.

When these Quranic verses and sahih Hadith are presented to those who follow various sects they will claim the punishment to the soul is different to the torment given to the dead body.

When asked, they struggle to explain how many punishments there are, and where they are mentioned in Quran and Sahih Hadiths.

The Quran and Sahih Hadiths clearly state there is ONE punishment which is called “The punishment of the grave” and in the Quran, Allah tells us after death, the corpse has no consciousness or senses and gradually decomposes. So, what kind of a punishment is this then?

In their defence, they present a hadith that Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) said:

Narrated Abu Sa`id: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Amongst the people preceding your age, there was a man whom Allah had given a lot of money. While he was in his death-bed, he called his sons and said, ‘What type of father have I been to you? They replied, ‘You have been a good father.’ He said, ‘I have never done a single good deed; so when I die, burn me, crush my body, and scatter the resulting ashes on a windy day.’ His sons did accordingly, but Allah gathered his particles and asked (him), ‘What made you do so?’ He replied, “Fear of you.’ So Allah bestowed His Mercy upon him. (forgave him).

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Prophets).

Allah’s Rule (Law) and Allah’s Miracle

We now know the corpse simply decomposes and it will be recreated only on the day of resurrection. To help understand, the above hadith is exception to a general rule of Allah. One is Allah’s law and the other is an exceptional case and if this happens in the presence of the Prophet then we know and accept it as a Miracle and take it as that only.

The law of Allah is that every child is born of a father and a mother. But Isa (عليه السلام) was born without a father which is opposite to the law of Allah and that is an exceptional case (Miracle). Allah’s law is clear regarding the decomposed dead bodies and how they will be recreated only on the day of resurrection. Followers of various sects avoid to present this law but the one exceptional miracle as a matter of evidence for their misbelief. From the hadith directly above we can see how this man who due to the fear of Allah, went to great efforts to scatter his body particles, but by Allah’s miracle it was recreated and this confirms how none can escapes from Allah no matter what the state.

Remember after death, the reward or punishment is with every person whether he is in a worldly grave or not. Claiming that the soul gets reward or punishment and body gets that separately is a baseless. We have presented numerous evidences from the Quran and sahih Hadith in which after death you either enter Paradise or Hell where you get rewarded or punishment. But not even a single verse from the Quran and Sahih Hadith in which Prophet (ﷺ) said that in this worldly grave you get reward or punishment.

Note: On night of Isra Prophet (ﷺ) said that He saw Musa (عليه السلام) in his grave but this cannot be presented as an evidence as it was night of miracle which is opposite to the law of Allah.  Then in the same night, Prophet (ﷺ) did not see Musa (عليه السلام) only in the grave but in Paradise and at Bait ul Muqadas, where Prophet (ﷺ) led all Prophets. Then how can we assume that Musa (عليه السلام) is alive in grave?

The place of Reward and Punishment after death.

From the various religious perspectives, the belief of the punishment of the grave has been given to the majority, is that there are two types of punishments, one is with the soul and the other is with the body.

As discussed in the previous series, in the light of Quran and sahih Hadith we learnt that after death the body which is made of clay has neither ability to hear nor to see and has no consciousness or sense.

Gradually the body decomposes and eventually will return to the soil. This is also proven with general observation. As we know that the dead body has no consciousness and sense therefore this cannot be accepted as belief, that this dead body gets reward or punishment.

In Sha Allah we will give more evidences according to the Quran and sahih Hadith to make it more clear that the dead body we bury in this worldly grave for them (dead bodies) Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) has said the place of reward or punishment is in Paradise or Hell, this reward or punishment of the grave is not for these bodies who has no consciousness and sense, but is for the souls

The Mushrikeen (one who associates with Allah) of Arabs used to bury their dead bodies, but Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) said about them:

عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ، رضى الله عنها قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ;رَأَيْتُ جَهَنَّمَ يَحْطِمُ بَعْضُهَا بَعْضًا، وَرَأَيْتُ عَمْرًا يَجُرُّ قُصْبَهُ، وَهْوَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ سَيَّبَ السَّوَائِبَ ‏.‏

( عن عائشہ  ، بخاری: کتاب العمل فی الصلاۃ ، بَابُ إِذَا انْفَلَتَتْ الدَّابَّةُ فِي الصَّلاَةِ)

Narrated `Aisha:Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “I saw Hell and its different portions were consuming each other and saw `Amr dragging his intestines (in it), and he was the first person to establish the tradition of letting animals loose (for the idols).

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Prophetic Commentary on the Qur’an (Tafseer of the Prophet ())

And for another person ‘Abu Thumama ‘Amr b. Malik’ from same era Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) said:

وَرَأَيْتُ أَبَا ثُمَامَةَ عَمْرَو بْنَ مَالِكٍ يَجُرُّ قُصْبَهُ فِي النَّارِ ‏

And I saw Abu Thumama ‘Amr b. Malik who was dragging his intestines in Hell.

(Sahih Muslim, The Book of Prayer – Eclipses, Chapter: What Was Shown To The Prophet of Paradise And Hell During The Eclipse Prayer)

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ :عُذِّبَتِ امْرَأَةٌ فِي هِرَّةٍ حَبَسَتْهَا، حَتَّى مَاتَتْ جُوعًا، فَدَخَلَتْ فِيهَا النَّارَ ـ قَالَ فَقَالَ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ ـ لاَ أَنْتِ أَطْعَمْتِهَا وَلاَ سَقَيْتِهَا حِينَ حَبَسْتِيهَا، وَلاَ أَنْتِ أَرْسَلْتِيهَا فَأَكَلَتْ مِنْ خَشَاشِ الأَرْضِ

( عن عبد اللہ بن عمر ؓ ، بخاری، کتاب المساقاۃ ، بَابُ فَضْلِ سَقْيِ المَاءِ)

Narrated `Abdullah bin `Umar:

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “A woman was tortured and was put in Hell because of a cat which she had kept locked till it died of hunger.” Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) further said, (Allah knows better) Allah said (to the woman), ‘You neither fed it nor watered when you locked it up, nor did you set it free to eat the insects of the earth.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Distribution of Water, Chapter: The superiority of providing water)

The Graves of the Martyrs and their Reward

At the time of the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ), those who had become martyrs and were buried in this worldly grave, it was said by The Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) they are getting reward in Paradise.

Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) said to the mother of Hartha bin Suraqa who got martyred on battle of Badr:

حَدَّثَنَا أَنَسُ بْنُ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّ أُمَّ الرُّبَيِّعِ بِنْتَ الْبَرَاءِ، وَهْىَ أُمُّ حَارِثَةَ بْنِ سُرَاقَةَ أَتَتِ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَتْ يَا نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ، أَلاَ تُحَدِّثُنِي عَنْ حَارِثَةَ وَكَانَ قُتِلَ يَوْمَ بَدْرٍ أَصَابَهُ سَهْمٌ غَرْبٌ، فَإِنْ كَانَ فِي الْجَنَّةِ، صَبَرْتُ، وَإِنْ كَانَ غَيْرَ ذَلِكَ اجْتَهَدْتُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْبُكَاءِ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏ :‏ يَا أُمَّ حَارِثَةَ، إِنَّهَا جِنَانٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ، وَإِنَّ ابْنَكِ أَصَابَ الْفِرْدَوْسَ الأَعْلَى ‏

( عن انس بن مالک  ، بخاری : کتاب الکتاب و السیر ، بَابُ مَنْ أَتَاهُ سَهْمٌ غَرْبٌ فَقَتَلَهُ)

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

Um Ar-Rubai’bint Al-Bara’, the mother of Hartha bin Suraqa came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and said, “O Allah’s Prophet! Will you tell me about Hartha?” Hartha has been killed (i.e. martyred) on the day of Badr with an arrow thrown by an unidentified person. She added, “If he is in Paradise, I will be patient; otherwise, I will weep bitterly for him.” He said, “O mother of Hartha! There are Gardens in Paradise and your son got the Firdausal-ala (i.e. the best place in Paradise).

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Book of Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihaad), Chapter: Whoever is killed by an arrow)

Martyrs of Battle of Uhud:

عَنْ مَسْرُوقٍ، قَالَ سَأَلْنَا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ عَنْ هَذِهِ الآيَةِ، ‏{‏ وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَاتًا بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ‏}‏ قَالَ أَمَا إِنَّا قَدْ سَأَلْنَا عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ ‏”‏ أَرْوَاحُهُمْ فِي جَوْفِ طَيْرٍ خُضْرٍ لَهَا قَنَادِيلُ مُعَلَّقَةٌ بِالْعَرْشِ تَسْرَحُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ حَيْثُ شَاءَتْ ثُمَّ تَأْوِي إِلَى تِلْكَ الْقَنَادِيلِ فَاطَّلَعَ إِلَيْهِمْ رَبُّهُمُ اطِّلاَعَةً فَقَالَ هَلْ تَشْتَهُونَ شَيْئًا قَالُوا أَىَّ شَىْءٍ نَشْتَهِي وَنَحْنُ نَسْرَحُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ حَيْثُ شِئْنَا فَفَعَلَ ذَلِكَ بِهِمْ ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ فَلَمَّا رَأَوْا أَنَّهُمْ لَنْ يُتْرَكُوا مِنْ أَنْ يُسْأَلُوا قَالُوا يَا رَبِّ نُرِيدُ أَنْ تَرُدَّ أَرْوَاحَنَا فِي أَجْسَادِنَا حَتَّى نُقْتَلَ فِي سَبِيلِكَ مَرَّةً أُخْرَى ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا رَأَى أَنْ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ حَاجَةٌ تُرِكُوا ‏

( مسلم ، کتاب الامارۃ ، باب بيان أن أرواح الشهداء في الجنة، وأنهم أحياء عند ربهم يرزقون)

It has been narrated on the authority of Masruq Who said:

We asked ‘Abdullah about the Qur’anic verse:” Think not of those who are slain in Allah’s way as dead. Nay, they are alive, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord..” (3:169). He said: We asked the meaning of the verse (from the Holy Prophet) who said: The souls, of the martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne of the Almighty. They eat the fruits of Paradise from wherever they like and then nestle in these chandeliers. Once their Lord cast a glance at them and said: Do ye want anything? They said: What more shall we desire? We eat the fruit of Paradise from wherever we like. Their Lord asked them the same question thrice. When they saw that they will continue to be asked and not left (without answering the question). they said: O Lord, we wish that Thou mayest return our souls to our bodies so that we may be slain in Thy way once again. When He (Allah) saw that they had no need, they were left (to their joy in heaven).

(Sahih Muslim, The Book on Government, Chapter: The souls of the martyrs are in Paradise, and they are alive with their Lord and they have provision)

جَابِرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، يَقُولُ لَقِيَنِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ لِي; يَا جَابِرُ مَا لِي أَرَاكَ مُنْكَسِرًا ‏ ‏.‏ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ اسْتُشْهِدَ أَبِي قُتِلَ يَوْمَ أُحُدٍ وَتَرَكَ عِيَالاً وَدَيْنًا ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏; أَفَلاَ أُبَشِّرُكَ بِمَا لَقِيَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَبَاكَ ‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ قُلْتُ بَلَى يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏”‏ مَا كَلَّمَ اللَّهُ أَحَدًا قَطُّ إِلاَّ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ وَأَحْيَا أَبَاكَ فَكَلَّمَهُ كِفَاحًا فَقَالَ يَا عَبْدِي تَمَنَّ عَلَىَّ أُعْطِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَا رَبِّ تُحْيِينِي فَأُقْتَلَ فِيكَ ثَانِيةً ‏.‏ قَالَ الرَّبُّ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنَّهُ قَدْ سَبَقَ مِنِّي أَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهَا لاَ يُرْجَعُونَ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَأُنْزِلَتْ هَذِهِ الآيَةُ ‏:‏ ‏(‏وَلَاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَاتًا ‏)‏ الآيَةَ ‏.

( عن جابر ؓ، ترمذی، ابواب تفسیر القرآن ، باب : ومن سورۃ آل عمران ، روایت حسن )

Narrated Musa bin Ibrahim bin Kathir Al-Ansari:

“I heard Talhah bin Khirash say: ‘I heard Jabir bin ‘Abdullah saying: “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) met me and said to me: ‘O Jabir! Why do I see you upset?’ I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! My father was martyred (on the Day of Uhud) leaving my family and debt behind.'” “He (ﷺ) said: ‘Shall I give you news of what your father met Allah with?'” He said: “But of course O Messenger of Allah!” He said: ‘Allah does not speak to anyone except from behind a veil, but He brought your father to speak to Him directly. He said: “[O My slave!] Do you wish that I give you anything?” He said: ‘O Lord! Give me life so that I may fight for You a second time.’ So the Lord [Blessed and Most High] said: ‘It has been decreed by Me that they shall not return (21:95).’ He said: “So this Ayah was revealed: Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah (3:169).”

(Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Chapters on Tafsir)

 (There is a hadith regarding Abdullah bin Umar bin Haram where his dead body was still safe undamaged after six months but there was no life in it, even there is a hadith which confirms that martyrs of the battle of Uhud are in Paradise having a conversation with Allah and requesting to return to the world)

Ibn Umar used to greet Jaffar bin abi Talib’s son after martyrdom of Jafar ibn Talib with these words:

عَنْ عَامِرٍ، قَالَ كَانَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ إِذَا حَيَّا ابْنَ جَعْفَرٍ قَالَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ ذِي الْجَنَاحَيْنِ‏

( عن عامر، بخاری ، کتاب المغازی ، بَابُ غَزْوَةِ مُؤْتَةَ مِنْ أَرْضِ الشَّأْمِ )

Narrated ‘Amir:

Whenever Ibn `Umar greeted the son of Ja`far, he used to say (to him), “Assalam ‘Alaika (i.e. peace be on you) O the son of two-winged person.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Military Expeditions led by the Prophet () (Al-Maghaazi), Chapter: The expedition of Mu`tah to the land of Syria)

That was because before martyrdom the disbelievers cut his both hands. Hadith in Tarmidhi Prophet (ﷺ) has said: 

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ رَأَيْتُ جَعْفَرًا يَطِيرُ فِي الْجَنَّةِ مَعَ الْمَلاَئِكَةِ ‏

Narrated Abu Hurairah:

that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “I saw Ja’far flying in Paradise with the angels.”

(Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Chapters on Virtues – كتاب المناقب عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم )

Prophet (ﷺ) must have buried his son Ibrahim in this worldly grave, but there is no reward for him in this grave but there is reward for him in Paradise.

عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، قَالَ مَا رَأَيْتُ أَحَدًا كَانَ أَرْحَمَ بِالْعِيَالِ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم – قَالَ – كَانَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ مُسْتَرْضِعًا لَهُ فِي عَوَالِي الْمَدِينَةِ فَكَانَ يَنْطَلِقُ وَنَحْنُ مَعَهُ فَيَدْخُلُ الْبَيْتَ وَإِنَّهُ لَيُدَّخَنُ وَكَانَ ظِئْرُهُ قَيْنًا فَيَأْخُذُهُ فَيُقَبِّلُهُ ثُمَّ يَرْجِعُ ‏.‏ قَالَ عَمْرٌو فَلَمَّا تُوُفِّيَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ; إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ابْنِي وَإِنَّهُ مَاتَ فِي الثَّدْىِ وَإِنَّ لَهُ لَظِئْرَيْنِ تُكَمِّلاَنِ رَضَاعَهُ فِي الْجَنَّةِ ‏

( عن انس بن مالک ، مسلم ،کتاب الفضائل ، باب رحمته صلى الله عليه وسلم الصبيان والعيال وتواضعه وفضل ذلك )

Anas b. Malik reported:

I have never seen anyone more kind to one’s family than Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ), and Ibrahim was sent to the suburb of Medina for suckling. He used to go there and we accompanied him. He entered the house, and it was filled with smoke as his foster-father was a brick smith. He took him (his son Ibrahim) and kissed him and then came back. ‘Amr said that when Ibrahim died. Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: Ibrahim is my son and he dies as a suckling baby. He has now two foster-mothers who would complete his suckling period in Paradise.

(Sahih Muslim, The Book of Virtues, Chapter: His Compassion Towards Children And His Humbleness, And The Virtue of That)

Companions of Prophet (ﷺ) was buried in this worldly grave but read this hadith:

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ نِمْتُ، فَرَأَيْتُنِي فِي الْجَنَّةِ، فَسَمِعْتُ صَوْتَ قَارِئٍ يَقْرَأُ، فَقُلْتُ: مَنْ هَذَا؟ فَقَالُوا: هَذَا حَارِثَةُ بْنُ النُّعْمَانِ. فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: كَذَلِكَ الْبِرُّ، كَذَلِكَ الْبِرُّ . وَكَانَ أَبَرَّ النَّاسِ بِأُمِّهِ

It is narrated on the authority of Aisha that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: I entered Paradise and heard the recitation of the Holy Qur’aan. I asked: Who is this? I was told that it was Haritha bin Nu’man. The Prophet (ﷺ) said: Your good people are like that and they were kind to their mother.

(Masnad e Ahmad: Masnad e Nisa, Masnad e Sadiqia Ayesha bint e Sidiq RaziAllah Anha

As you can see from all these ahadith it is evident that the dead who were buried in this worldly grave, the Prophet (ﷺ) said the place of Punishment and Reward is Paradise or Hell, did not say anything about their dead bodies in this worldly grave.

Now we present this long hadith in front of you, in which the Prophet (ﷺ) was shown in a dream that people who died in this world but were getting their reward or punishment in the realm of barzakh.

عَنْ سَمُرَةَ بْنِ جُنْدَبٍ، قَالَ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا صَلَّى صَلاَةً أَقْبَلَ عَلَيْنَا بِوَجْهِهِ فَقَالَ ‏‏ مَنْ رَأَى مِنْكُمُ اللَّيْلَةَ رُؤْيَا .‏ قَالَ فَإِنْ رَأَى أَحَدٌ قَصَّهَا، فَيَقُولُ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ، فَسَأَلَنَا يَوْمًا، فَقَالَ ‏;‏ هَلْ رَأَى أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ رُؤْيَا ‏”‏‏.‏ قُلْنَا لاَ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏;‏ لَكِنِّي رَأَيْتُ اللَّيْلَةَ رَجُلَيْنِ أَتَيَانِي فَأَخَذَا بِيَدِي، فَأَخْرَجَانِي إِلَى الأَرْضِ الْمُقَدَّسَةِ، فَإِذَا رَجُلٌ جَالِسٌ، وَرَجُلٌ قَائِمٌ بِيَدِهِ كَلُّوبٌ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ ـ قَالَ بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ مُوسَى إِنَّهُ ـ يُدْخِلُ ذَلِكَ الْكَلُّوبَ فِي شِدْقِهِ، حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ قَفَاهُ، ثُمَّ يَفْعَلُ بِشِدْقِهِ الآخَرِ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ، وَيَلْتَئِمُ شِدْقُهُ هَذَا، فَيَعُودُ فَيَصْنَعُ مِثْلَهُ‏.‏ قُلْتُ مَا هَذَا قَالاَ انْطَلِقْ‏.

Whenever the Prophet (ﷺ) finished the (morning) prayer, he would face us and ask, “Who amongst you had a dream last night?” So if anyone had seen a dream he would narrate it. The Prophet (ﷺ) would say: “Ma sha’a-llah” (An Arabic maxim meaning literally, ‘What Allah wished,’ and it indicates a good omen.) One day, he asked us whether anyone of us had seen a dream. We replied in the negative. The Prophet said, “But I had seen (a dream) last night that two men came to me, caught hold of my hands, and took me to the Sacred Land (Jerusalem). There, I saw a person sitting and another standing with an iron hook in his hand pushing it inside the mouth of the former till it reached the jawbone, and then tore off one side of his cheek, and then did the same with the other side; in the meantime, the first side of his cheek became normal again and then he repeated the same operation again. I said, ‘What is this?’ They told me to proceed.

‏ فَانْطَلَقْنَا حَتَّى أَتَيْنَا عَلَى رَجُلٍ مُضْطَجِعٍ عَلَى قَفَاهُ، وَرَجُلٌ قَائِمٌ عَلَى رَأْسِهِ بِفِهْرٍ أَوْ صَخْرَةٍ، فَيَشْدَخُ بِهِ رَأْسَهُ، فَإِذَا ضَرَبَهُ تَدَهْدَهَ الْحَجَرُ، فَانْطَلَقَ إِلَيْهِ لِيَأْخُذَهُ، فَلاَ يَرْجِعُ إِلَى هَذَا حَتَّى يَلْتَئِمَ رَأْسُهُ، وَعَادَ رَأْسُهُ كَمَا هُوَ، فَعَادَ إِلَيْهِ فَضَرَبَهُ، قُلْتُ مَنْ هَذَا قَالاَ انْطَلِقْ‏.‏ فَانْطَلَقْنَا إِلَى ثَقْبٍ مِثْلِ التَّنُّورِ، أَعْلاَهُ ضَيِّقٌ وَأَسْفَلُهُ وَاسِعٌ، يَتَوَقَّدُ تَحْتَهُ نَارًا، فَإِذَا اقْتَرَبَ ارْتَفَعُوا حَتَّى كَادَ أَنْ يَخْرُجُوا، فَإِذَا خَمَدَتْ رَجَعُوا فِيهَا، وَفِيهَا رِجَالٌ وَنِسَاءٌ عُرَاةٌ‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ مَنْ هَذَا قَالاَ انْطَلِقْ‏.‏ فَانْطَلَقْنَا حَتَّى أَتَيْنَا عَلَى نَهَرٍ مِنْ دَمٍ، فِيهِ رَجُلٌ قَائِمٌ عَلَى وَسَطِ النَّهَرِ رَجُلٌ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ حِجَارَةٌ، فَأَقْبَلَ الرَّجُلُ الَّذِي فِي النَّهَرِ، فَإِذَا أَرَادَ أَنْ يَخْرُجَ رَمَى الرَّجُلُ بِحَجَرٍ فِي فِيهِ، فَرَدَّهُ حَيْثُ كَانَ، فَجَعَلَ كُلَّمَا جَاءَ لِيَخْرُجَ رَمَى فِي فِيهِ بِحَجَرٍ، فَيَرْجِعُ كَمَا كَانَ‏.‏

They told me to proceed on and we went on till we came to a man Lying flat on his back, and another man standing at his head carrying a stone or a piece of rock, and crushing the head of the Lying man, with that stone. Whenever he struck him, the stone rolled away. The man went to pick it up and by the time he returned to him, the crushed head had returned to its normal state and the man came back and struck him again (and so on). I said, ‘Who is this?’ They told me to proceed on; so we proceeded on and passed by a hole like an oven; with a narrow top and wide bottom, and the fire was kindling underneath that hole. Whenever the fire-flame went up, the people were lifted up to such an extent that they about to get out of it, and whenever the fire got quieter, the people went down into it, and there were naked men and women in it. I said, ‘Who is this?’ They told me to proceed on. So we proceeded on till we reached a river of blood and a man was in it, and another man was standing at its bank with stones in front of him, facing the man standing in the river. Whenever the man in the river wanted to come out, the other one threw a stone in his mouth and caused him to retreat to his original position; and so whenever he wanted to come out the other would throw a stone in his mouth, and he would retreat to his original position. ‘

فَقُلْتُ مَا هَذَا قَالاَ انْطَلِقْ‏.‏ فَانْطَلَقْنَا حَتَّى انْتَهَيْنَا إِلَى رَوْضَةٍ خَضْرَاءَ، فِيهَا شَجَرَةٌ عَظِيمَةٌ، وَفِي أَصْلِهَا شَيْخٌ وَصِبْيَانٌ، وَإِذَا رَجُلٌ قَرِيبٌ مِنَ الشَّجَرَةِ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ نَارٌ يُوقِدُهَا، فَصَعِدَا بِي فِي الشَّجَرَةِ، وَأَدْخَلاَنِي دَارًا لَمْ أَرَ قَطُّ أَحْسَنَ مِنْهَا، فِيهَا رِجَالٌ شُيُوخٌ وَشَبَابٌ، وَنِسَاءٌ وَصِبْيَانٌ، ثُمَّ أَخْرَجَانِي مِنْهَا فَصَعِدَا بِي الشَّجَرَةَ فَأَدْخَلاَنِي دَارًا هِيَ أَحْسَنُ وَأَفْضَلُ، فِيهَا شُيُوخٌ وَشَبَابٌ‏.‏ قُلْتُ طَوَّفْتُمَانِي اللَّيْلَةَ، فَأَخْبِرَانِي عَمَّا رَأَيْتُ‏.‏

I asked, ‘What is this? They told me to proceed on and we did so till we reached a well-flourished green garden having a huge tree and near its root was sitting an old man with some children. (I saw) Another man near the tree with fire in front of him and he was kindling it up. Then they (i.e. my two companions) made me climb up the tree and made me enter a house, better than which I have ever seen. In it were some old men and young men, women and children. Then they took me out of this house and made me climb up the tree and made me enter another house that was better and superior (to the first) containing old and young people. I said to them (i.e. my two companions), ‘You have made me ramble all the night. Tell me all about that I have seen.’

قَالاَ نَعَمْ، أَمَّا الَّذِي رَأَيْتَهُ يُشَقُّ شِدْقُهُ فَكَذَّابٌ يُحَدِّثُ بِالْكَذْبَةِ، فَتُحْمَلُ عَنْهُ حَتَّى تَبْلُغَ الآفَاقَ، فَيُصْنَعُ بِهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ‏.‏ وَالَّذِي رَأَيْتَهُ يُشْدَخُ رَأْسُهُ فَرَجُلٌ عَلَّمَهُ اللَّهُ الْقُرْآنَ، فَنَامَ عَنْهُ بِاللَّيْلِ، وَلَمْ يَعْمَلْ فِيهِ بِالنَّهَارِ، يُفْعَلُ بِهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ‏.‏ وَالَّذِي رَأَيْتَهُ فِي الثَّقْبِ فَهُمُ الزُّنَاةُ‏.‏ وَالَّذِي رَأَيْتَهُ فِي النَّهَرِ آكِلُو الرِّبَا‏.‏ وَالشَّيْخُ فِي أَصْلِ الشَّجَرَةِ إِبْرَاهِيمُ ـ عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ ـ وَالصِّبْيَانُ حَوْلَهُ فَأَوْلاَدُ النَّاسِ، وَالَّذِي يُوقِدُ النَّارَ مَالِكٌ خَازِنُ النَّارِ‏.‏ وَالدَّارُ الأُولَى الَّتِي دَخَلْتَ دَارُ عَامَّةِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، وَأَمَّا هَذِهِ الدَّارُ فَدَارُ الشُّهَدَاءِ

They said, ‘Yes.As for the one whose cheek you saw being torn away, he was a liar and he used to tell lies, and the people would report those lies on his authority till they spread all over the world. So, he will be punished like that till the Day of Resurrection.

The one whose head you saw being crushed is the one whom Allah had given the knowledge of Qur’an but he used to sleep at night and did not use to act upon it (i.e. upon its orders etc.) by day; and so this punishment will go on till the Day of Resurrection.

And those you saw in the hole (like oven) were adulterers (those men and women who commit illegal sexual intercourse).

And those you saw in the river of blood were those dealing in Riba (usury).

And the old man who was sitting at the base of the tree was Abraham and the little children around him were the offspring of the people.

And the one who was kindling the fire was Malik, the gatekeeper of the Hell-fire.

And the first house in which you have gone was the house of the common believers, and the second house was of the martyrs.

 وَأَنَا جِبْرِيلُ، وَهَذَا مِيكَائِيلُ، فَارْفَعْ رَأْسَكَ، فَرَفَعْتُ رَأْسِي فَإِذَا فَوْقِي مِثْلُ السَّحَابِ‏.‏ قَالاَ ذَاكَ مَنْزِلُكَ‏.‏ قُلْتُ دَعَانِي أَدْخُلْ مَنْزِلِي‏.‏ قَالاَ إِنَّهُ بَقِيَ لَكَ عُمْرٌ لَمْ تَسْتَكْمِلْهُ، فَلَوِ اسْتَكْمَلْتَ أَتَيْتَ مَنْزِلَكَ ‏

( عن سمرۃ بن جندب ، بخاری، کتاب الجنائز ، بَابُ مَا قِيلَ فِي أَوْلاَدِ المُشْرِكِينَ )

I am Gabriel and this is Michael. Raise your head.’ I raised my head and saw a thing like a cloud over me.

They said, ‘That is your place.’

I said, ‘Let me enter my place.’

They said, ‘You still have some life which you have not yet completed, and when you complete (that remaining portion of your life) you will then enter your place.‘ “

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Funerals (Al-Janaa’iz), Chapter: The (dead) children of Al-Mushrikun)

Angels said to Prophet (ﷺ),  ‘You still have some portion of life which you have not yet completed, meaning when you complete that remaining portion of your life you will then enter your place.

Allah O Akbar It’s been said in simple words that after completing his age in this world, the human does not stay in this world but goes to its place in skies.

Prophet (ﷺ) has said the same:

مَا أَحَدٌ يَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّةَ يُحِبُّ أَنْ يَرْجِعَ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا وَلَهُ مَا عَلَى الأَرْضِ مِنْ شَىْءٍ، إِلاَّ الشَّهِيدُ، يَتَمَنَّى أَنْ يَرْجِعَ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا فَيُقْتَلَ عَشْرَ مَرَّاتٍ، لِمَا يَرَى مِنَ الْكَرَامَةِ ‏

( عن انس بن مالک ، بخاری، کتاب الجھاد و السیر ،بَابُ تَمَنِّي المُجَاهِدِ أَنْ يَرْجِعَ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا)

The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “No body who enters Paradise likes to go back to the world even if he got everything on the earth, except a Mujahid who wishes to return to the world so that he may be martyred ten times because of the dignity he receives (from Allah).”

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihaad), Chapter: The wish of the Mujahid to return to the world)

Firstly, let’s establish the place in this hadith.

In this hadith the martyrs were shown to Muhammad (ﷺ), from various hadiths it’s been proven that martyrs are in Paradise. In this hadith Angels said while showing the houses of Martyrs:

وَأَمَّا هَذِهِ الدَّارُ فَدَارُ الشُّهَدَاءِ، وَأَنَا جِبْرِيلُ، وَهَذَا مِيكَائِيلُ، فَارْفَعْ رَأْسَكَ، فَرَفَعْتُ رَأْسِي فَإِذَا فَوْقِي مِثْلُ السَّحَابِ‏.‏ قَالاَ ذَاكَ مَنْزِلُكَ‏.‏ قُلْتُ دَعَانِي أَدْخُلْ مَنْزِلِي‏.‏ قَالاَ إِنَّهُ بَقِيَ لَكَ عُمْرٌ لَمْ تَسْتَكْمِلْهُ، فَلَوِ اسْتَكْمَلْتَ أَتَيْتَ مَنْزِلَكَ

and the second house was of the martyrs. I am Gabriel and this is Michael. Raise your head.’ I raised my head and saw a thing like a cloud over me. They said, ‘That is your place.’ I said, ‘Let me enter my place.’ They said, ‘You still have some life which you have not yet completed, and when you complete (that remaining portion of your life) you will then enter your place.

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Funerals (Al-Janaa’iz), Chapter: The (dead) children of Al-Mushrikun)

In another Hadith of Sahih Bukhari Aisha رضی اللہ عنھا said that Prophet ﷺSaid:

إِنَّهُ لَمْ يُقْبَضْ نَبِيٌّ قَطُّ حَتَّى يَرَى مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ

( عن عائشہ ؓ ، بخاری، کتاب  المغازی ، بَابُ مَرَضِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَوَفَاتِهِ )

Never does a prophet die unless he is shown his place in Paradise (before his death).

In this hadith, the Prophet (ﷺ) was shown by the Angels his place in paradise. When the Prophet (ﷺ) wanted to enter the Angels said, ‘You still have some life which you have not yet completed, and when you complete (that remaining portion of your worldly life) you will then enter your place.’

In the Sahih Bukhari hadith which has been mentioned in detail earlier, when Prophet (ﷺ) died Fatima said:

يَا أَبَتَاهْ، أَجَابَ رَبًّا دَعَاهُ، يَا أَبَتَاهْ مَنْ جَنَّةُ الْفِرْدَوْسِ مَأْوَاهُ، يَا أَبَتَاهْ إِلَى جِبْرِيلَ نَنْعَاهْ‏.‏

O Father! Who has responded to the call of the Lord Who has invited him! O Father, whose dwelling place is the Garden of Paradise (i.e. Al-Firdaus)! O Father! We convey this news (of your death) to Gabriel۔

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Military Expeditions led by the Prophet () (Al-Maghaazi), Chapter: The sickness of the Prophet (saws) and his death))

Therefore, it was not the earthly (Worldly) grave, but the place is in Paradise.

When the Prophet (ﷺ) asked the Angels about the torment shown:

رَأَيْتُ‏.‏ قَالاَ نَعَمْ، أَمَّا الَّذِي رَأَيْتَهُ يُشَقُّ شِدْقُهُ فَكَذَّابٌ يُحَدِّثُ بِالْكَذْبَةِ، فَتُحْمَلُ عَنْهُ حَتَّى تَبْلُغَ الآفَاقَ، فَيُصْنَعُ بِهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ‏.‏

As for the one whose cheek you saw being torn away, he was a liar and he used to tell lies, and the people would report those lies on his authority till they spread all over the world. So, he will be punished like that till the Day of Resurrection.

Now think where is that place after death in this world where people get entered and they will get punishment until day of resurrection.

‏ وَالَّذِي رَأَيْتَهُ يُشْدَخُ رَأْسُهُ فَرَجُلٌ عَلَّمَهُ اللَّهُ الْقُرْآنَ، فَنَامَ عَنْهُ بِاللَّيْلِ، وَلَمْ يَعْمَلْ فِيهِ بِالنَّهَارِ، يُفْعَلُ بِهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ‏.‏

The one whose head you saw being crushed is the one whom Allah had given the knowledge of Qur’an but he used to sleep at night and did not use to act upon it (i.e. upon its orders etc.) by day; and so this punishment will go on till the Day of Resurrection.

وَالَّذِي رَأَيْتَهُ فِي الثَّقْبِ فَهُمُ الزُّنَاةُ‏

And those you saw in the hole (like oven) were adulterers (those men and women who commit illegal sexual intercourse).

وَالَّذِي رَأَيْتَهُ فِي النَّهَرِ آكِلُو الرِّبَا‏

And those you saw in the river of blood were those dealing in Riba (usury).

Adulterers get buried in separate graves in this world and some are cremated, although the place where all the adulterers are being punished together is no longer separate. The same is as those who deal with Riba (usury, interest) being punished at the river of blood. It’s evident that after death the place of reward or punishment is not this worldly grave. It is also proven from this hadith that the soul gets a body (Barzakhi) in the realm of Barzakh and the combination of the soul and temporary body go through this reward or punishment.

Torment of the grave (Azab-e-Qabr) shown to the Prophet (ﷺ) in Salat ul Kasoof

One of the Muftis (Salfi) of Ahl-e-Hadith writes in his book

The summary of these different Hadiths is that Ayesha was told for the first time about Azab-e-Qabr by a Jew woman but she didn’t affirm it.  The Prophet (ﷺ) also declared Jews as lairs. Later, revelation was sent upon the Prophet (ﷺ) and he was told about the torment of the grave. The solar eclipse also occurred the same day and his son Ibrahim (R.A) also passed away. Therefore, on the same day the Prophet (ﷺ) performed the Salat-ul-Kasoof (prayer offered during solar eclipse) and the Prophet (ﷺ) gave a sermon. During the sermon the companions were given the details of the torment of the grave.(Mufti Jabir Damanwi, Aqedah Azab e Qabar, pg.36)

So we are presenting the same Hadith now so that may get to know the reality of the torment of the grave.

Hadith on Salat ul Kasoof

فَقُمْتُ حَتَّى تَجَلَّانِي الْغَشْيُ وَجَعَلْتُ أَصُبُّ فَوْقَ رَأْسِي مَاءً ، فَلَمَّا انْصَرَفَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ ، ثُمَّ قَالَ :    مَا مِنْ شَيْءٍ كُنْتُ لَمْ أَرَهُ إِلَّا قَدْ رَأَيْتُهُ فِي مَقَامِي هَذَا حَتَّى الْجَنَّةَ وَالنَّارَ ، وَلَقَدْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ أَنَّكُمْ تُفْتَنُونَ فِي الْقُبُورِ مِثْلَ أَوْ قَرِيبًا مِنْ فِتْنَةِ الدَّجَّالِ لَا أَدْرِي أَيَّ ذَلِكَ ، قَالَتْ أَسْمَاءُ : يُؤْتَى أَحَدُكُمْ ، فَيُقَالُ لَهُ مَا عِلْمُكَ بِهَذَا الرَّجُلِ ؟ فَأَمَّا الْمُؤْمِنُ أَوِ الْمُوقِنُ لَا أَدْرِي أَيَّ ذَلِكَ ، قَالَتْ أَسْمَاءُ : فَيَقُولُ هُوَ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ جَاءَنَا بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالْهُدَى فَأَجَبْنَا وَآمَنَّا وَاتَّبَعْنَا ، فَيُقَالُ لَهُ صَالِحًا : فَقَدْ عَلِمْنَا إِنْ كُنْتَ لَمُؤْمِنًا ، وَأَمَّا الْمُنَافِقُ أَوِ الْمُرْتَابُ لَا أَدْرِي أَيَّ ذَلِكَ ، قَالَتْ أَسْمَاءُ : فَيَقُولُ لَا أَدْرِي سَمِعْتُ النَّاسَ يَقُولُونَ شَيْئًا فَقُلْتُهُ

(بخاری:کتاب الوضوء۔باب من لم یتوضا الا من الغشی المثقل)

(Narrated Asma’ bint Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with her) about performing of Salat ul Kasoof that) .. I, too, stood for the prayer till I fell unconscious and later on I poured water on my head. After the prayer, Allah’s Apostle praised and glorified Allah and said

ثُمَّ قَالَ :    مَا مِنْ شَيْءٍ كُنْتُ لَمْ أَرَهُ إِلَّا قَدْ رَأَيْتُهُ فِي مَقَامِي هَذَا حَتَّى الْجَنَّةَ وَالنَّارَ

Just now I have seen something which I never saw before at this place of mine, including Paradise and Hell

وَلَقَدْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ أَنَّكُمْ تُفْتَنُونَ فِي الْقُبُورِ۔۔۔۔

No doubt it has been inspired to me that you will be put to trials in your graves and these trials will be like the trials of Masih-ad-Dajjal or nearly like it

يُؤْتَى أَحَدُكُمْ ، فَيُقَالُ۔۔۔۔

Every one of you will be brought and asked,

“What do you know about this man?” A believer will reply, “He is Muhammad (ﷺ), Allah’s Apostle, and he came to us with self-evident truth and guidance. So we accepted his teaching, believed and followed him”. Then the angels will say to him to sleep in peace as they have come to know that he was a believer. On the other hand, a hypocrite or a doubtful person will reply, “I do not know but heard the people saying something and, so I said the same”.’

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Ablutions (Wudu’), Chapter: Whoever does not repeat ablution except after falling into deep sleep – losing consciousness completely)

Now ponder upon the words of the Hadith that at which location it has mentioned about:

يُؤْتَى أَحَدُكُمْ ، فَيُقَالُ

Every one of you will be brought and asked

The explanation which we get from the Quran and Sahih Hadith about this is that the Angels take the soul of every deceased to Allah Almighty.

وَ هُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهٖ وَ يُرْسِلُ عَلَيْكُمْ حَفَظَةً١ؕ حَتّٰۤى اِذَا جَآءَ اَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ تَوَفَّتْهُ رُسُلُنَا وَ هُمْ لَا يُفَرِّطُوْنَ۝ثُمَّ رُدُّوْۤا اِلَى اللّٰهِ مَوْلٰىهُمُ الْحَقِّ١ؕ اَلَا لَهُ الْحُكْمُ١۫ وَ هُوَ اَسْرَعُ الْحٰسِبِيْنَ۰۰۶۲

And He is the subjugator over His servants, and He sends over you guardian-angels until, when death comes to one of you, Our messengers take him, and they do not fail [in their duties]. Then they [i.e., His servants] are returned to Allah, their true Lord. Unquestionably, His is the judgement, and He is the swiftest of accountants.

(Surah Al-An’am :61-62)

ؕ وَ لَوْ تَرٰۤى اِذِ الظّٰلِمُوْنَ فِيْ غَمَرٰتِ الْمَوْتِ وَ الْمَلٰٓىِٕكَةُ بَاسِطُوْۤا اَيْدِيْهِمْ١ۚ اَخْرِجُوْۤا اَنْفُسَكُمْ١ؕ اَلْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ عَذَابَ الْهُوْنِ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَقُوْلُوْنَ عَلَى اللّٰهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ وَ كُنْتُمْ عَنْ اٰيٰتِهٖ تَسْتَكْبِرُوْنَ۠۝وَ لَقَدْ جِئْتُمُوْنَا فُرَادٰى كَمَا خَلَقْنٰكُمْ اَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَّ تَرَكْتُمْ مَّا خَوَّلْنٰكُمْ وَرَآءَ ظُهُوْرِكُمْ١ۚ وَ مَا نَرٰى مَعَكُمْ شُفَعَآءَكُمُ الَّذِيْنَ زَعَمْتُمْ اَنَّهُمْ فِيْكُمْ شُرَكٰٓؤُا١ؕ لَقَدْ تَّقَطَّعَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَ ضَلَّ عَنْكُمْ مَّا كُنْتُمْ تَزْعُمُوْنَؒ۰۰۹۴

And if you could but see when the wrongdoers are in the overwhelming pangs of death while the angels extend their hands, [saying], “Discharge your souls! Today you will be recompensed with the punishment of [extreme] humiliation for what you used to say against Allah other than the truth and [that] you were, toward His verses, being arrogant.”

[It will be said to them], “And you have certainly come to Us alone [i.e individually] as We created you the first time, and you have left whatever We bestowed upon you behind you. And We do not see with you your ‘intercessors’ which you claimed that they were among you associates [of Allah]. It has [all] been severed between you,and lost from you is what you used to claim.”

(Surah Al-An’am:93-94)

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ ‏; إِذَا خَرَجَتْ رُوحُ الْمُؤْمِنِ تَلَقَّاهَا مَلَكَانِ يُصْعِدَانِهَا ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ حَمَّادٌ فَذَكَرَ مِنْ طِيبِ رِيحِهَا وَذَكَرَ الْمِسْكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ;وَيَقُولُ أَهْلُ السَّمَاءِ رُوحٌ طَيِّبَةٌ جَاءَتْ مِنْ قِبَلِ الأَرْضِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْكِ وَعَلَى جَسَدٍ كُنْتِ تَعْمُرِينَهُ ‏.‏ فَيُنْطَلَقُ بِهِ إِلَى رَبِّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ثُمَّ يَقُولُ انْطَلِقُوا بِهِ إِلَى آخِرِ الأَجَلِ ‏‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ;‏ وَإِنَّ الْكَافِرَ إِذَا خَرَجَتْ رُوحُهُ – قَالَ حَمَّادٌ وَذَكَرَ مِنْ نَتْنِهَا وَذَكَرَ لَعْنًا – وَيَقُولُ أَهْلُ السَّمَاءِ رُوحٌ خَبِيثَةٌ جَاءَتْ مِنْ قِبَلِ الأَرْضِ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَيُقَالُ انْطَلِقُوا بِهِ إِلَى آخِرِ الأَجَلِ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ فَرَدَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم رَيْطَةً كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِ عَلَى أَنْفِهِ هَكَذَا ‏.‏

(مسلم:کتاب الجنۃ و صفۃ نعیمھا، باب عرض المقعد علی المیت و عذاب القبر)

Abu Huraira reported:

When the soul of a believer would go out (of his body) it would be received by two angels who would take it to the sky. Hammad (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) mentioned the sweatiness of its odor (fragrance of musk from his sweat), (and further said) that the dwellers of the sky say: Here comes the pious soul from the side of the earth Let there be blessings of Allah upon the body in which it resides. And it is carried (by the angels) to its Lord, the Exalted and Glorious. He would say: Take it to its destined end. And if he is a nonbeliever and as it (the soul) leaves the body-Hammad made a mention of its foul smell and of its being cursed-the dwellers of the sky say: There comes a dirty soul from the side of the earth, and it would be said: Take it to its destined end. Abu Huraira reported that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) put a thin cloth which was with him upon his nose while making a mention (of the foul smell) of the soul of a non-believer.

(Sahih Muslim, The Book of Paradise, its Description, its Bounties and its Inhabitants, Chapter: The Deceased Is Shown His Place In Paradise Or The Fire; And Confirmation Of The Torment In The Grave – We Seek Refuge With Allah From That)

So, it is the location where souls of all mankind are brought after death. The hadith which is narrated by Asma on Salat ul Kasoof (about which Ahl-e-Hadith has disclosed that in this Hadith Prophet (ﷺ) explained for the first time about the details of Azab-e-Qabr), its text also proves the same thing.

There were different modes of Revelation on the Prophet (ﷺ). Sometimes, the message was brought by an Angel, sometimes it was revealed into the heart, sometimes through the dream, and sometimes he had foretold visions that were bound to occur. Hence the revelation of this Hadith was done in the latter mode events taking place during the torment of the grave were shown to the Prophet (ﷺ) and his words (رَأَيْتُهُ I saw) is proof for that.

فَقَالَ إِنِّي قَدْ رَأَيْتُكُمْ تُفْتَنُونَ فِي الْقُبُورِ كَفِتْنَةِ الدَّجَّال ۔۔۔۔۔فَكُنْتُ أَسْمَعُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ يَتَعَوَّذُ مِنْ عَذَابِ النَّارِ وَعَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ

(مسلم:کتاب الکسوف، باب ذکرعذاب القبر فی صلاۃ الخسوف)

…(After performing Salat ul Kasoof) He (the Prophet (ﷺ)) then said: I saw you under trial in the grave like the turmoil of Dajjal. ‘Amra said: I heard ‘A’isha say: I listened after this to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) seeking refuge from the torment of Fire and the torment of the grave.

(Sahih Muslim, The Book of Prayer – Eclipses, Chapter: Mentioning The Punishment In The Grave During The Eclipse Prayer)

What Prophet (ﷺ) saw:

إِنَّهُ عُرِضَ عَلَيَّ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ تُولَجُونَهُ فَعُرِضَتْ عَلَيَّ الْجَنَّةُ حَتَّى لَوْ تَنَاوَلْتُ مِنْهَا قِطْفًا أَخَذْتُهُ أَوْ قَالَ تَنَاوَلْتُ مِنْهَا قِطْفًا فَقَصُرَتْ يَدِي عَنْهُ وَعُرِضَتْ عَلَيَّ النَّارُ فَرَأَيْتُ فِيهَا امْرَأَةً مِنْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ تُعَذَّبُ فِي هِرَّةٍ لَهَا رَبَطَتْهَا فَلَمْ تُطْعِمْهَا وَلَمْ تَدَعْهَا تَأْكُلُ مِنْ خَشَاشِ الْأَرْضِ وَرَأَيْتُ أَبَا ثُمَامَةَ عَمْرَو بْنَ مَالِكٍ يَجُرُّ قُصْبَهُ فِي النَّارِ

(مسلم:کتاب ا لکسوف، باب ما عرض علی النبیافی صلاۃ الکسوف من امرالجنۃ والنار)

…and then said: All these things were brought to me in which you will be made to enter. Paradise was brought to me till (I was so close to it) that if I (had intended) to pluck a bunch (of grapes) out of it. I would have got it, or he (the Prophet (ﷺ)) said: I intended to get a bunch (out of that) but my hand could not reach it. Hell was also brought to me and I saw in it a woman belonging to the tribe of Israel who was tormented for a cat whom she had tied, but did not give it food nor set it free to eat the creatures of the earth; and I saw Abu Thumama ‘Amr b. Malik who was dragging his intestines in Hell.

(Sahih Muslim, The Book of Prayer – Eclipses, Chapter: What Was Shown To the Prophet () Of Paradise And Hell During The Eclipse)

عَنْ عُرْوَةَ ، أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا ، قَالَتْ : قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺرَأَيْتُ جَهَنَّمَ يَحْطِمُ بَعْضُهَا بَعْضًا ، وَرَأَيْتُ عَمْرًا يَجُرُّ قُصْبَهُ ، وَهْوَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ سَيَّبَ السَّوَائِبَ

(بخاری:کتاب التفسیر،تفسیرسورۃ المائدۃ، باب قولہ ماجعل اﷲ من بحیرۃ ولا سائبۃ ولاوصیلۃ ولاحام،عن عائشۃ وابی ھریرۃ رضی اﷲ)

Narrated Aisha: Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, I saw hell and its different portions were destroying each other, and I saw `Amr dragging his intestines in it, and he was the first person to establish the tradition of letting animals loose in the name of the idols.

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Prophetic Commentary on the Qur’an (Tafseer of the Prophet ()), Chapter ‘Allah has not instituted things like Bahirah or a Sã’ibah, or a Wasilah or a Ham…” (V.5:103)).

Bethink, which were these graves in which the Prophet (ﷺ) saw the punishments and sought refuge from the torment of the graves? Were these graves on Earth where the body decomposes or were these locations of the hell in which one’s soul has entered and will get his punishment accordingly until the Day of Judgement.

The Prophet (ﷺ) stood at the well of Badr (which contained the corpses of the pagans) and said,

هَلْ وَجَدْتُمْ مَا وَعَدَ رَبُّكُمْ حَقًّا

Have you found the truth what your Lord promised you?

So Aisha interpreted it as:

حِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا مَقَاعِدَهُمْ مِنَ النَّار

When they had taken their places in the Hell-Fire.

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Military Expeditions led by the Prophet () (Al-Maghaazi), Chapter: The killing of Abu Jahl)

From this saying of the Prophet (ﷺ), it is clearly explained that the location where the deceased is punished or rewarded till the day of judgements is the same location for which Allah says:

ثُمَّ اَمَاتَهٗ فَاَقْبَرَهٗۙ

Then He causes his death and provides a grave for him.

 (Surah Abasa: 21)

As it has been said in the Quran about the nation of Nuh, wives of Nuh and Lout that straight after their death they entered hellfire and the people of Pharaoh presented in it, the same sequence also is found in the Hadith of the Prophet. After viewing the punishment of the hellfire (the realm of barzakh), the Prophet (ﷺ) sought refuge from the punishment of the grave. We believe the same that torment of the grave does not happen in the worldly grave but in the realm of barzakh.

These are the narrations about Salat Ul Kasoof about which Mufti of AhleHadeed sect (Salafi) said that in these narrations the Prophet (ﷺ) has given details about Azab-e-Qabr (torment of the grave). This saying of the Prophet (ﷺ) was also quoted in these narrations, that:

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said: Many things came before me in which you will go and heaven came just like that… and hell came in front of me…

But the Prophet (ﷺ) has never mentioned the grave of this world. In fact, while watching the torment of hell (realm of barzakh), He (ﷺ) said:

“And, no doubt it has been revealed to me that you (people) will be put in trial in your graves like or nearly like the trial of Masih Ad-Dajjal.“

And then he sought refuge from the torment of grave!

So, this is that grave for mankind in which they will remain from the time one departs the world till the Day of Judgement, here one will either be punished or rewarded.

Questions & Answers after death

Allah Ta’ala mentions in the Quran:

يُثَبِّتُ اللّٰهُ الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا بِالْقَوْلِ الثَّابِتِ فِي الْحَيٰوةِ الدُّنْيَا وَ فِي الْاٰخِرَةِ

Allah keeps firm those who believe, with the firm word, in worldly life and in the Hereafter.

(Surah Ibrahim: 27)

Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) said about this verse:

‏يُثَبِّتُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا‏‏ نَزَلَتْ فِي عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ‏.

( عن براء بن عازب ، بخاری، کتاب الجنائز ، بَابُ مَا جَاءَ فِي عَذَابِ القَبْرِ)

Allah will keep firm those who believe . . . (14:27) was revealed concerning the punishment of the grave.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Funerals (Al-Janaa’iz), Chapter: The punishment in the grave)

الْمُسْلِمُ إِذَا سُئِلَ فِي الْقَبْرِ يَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، فَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ ‏{‏يُثَبِّتُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِالْقَوْلِ الثَّابِتِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الآخِرَةِ‏}

When a Muslim is questioned in his grave, he will testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ), and that is what is meant by Allah’s Statement: “Allah will keep firm those who believe with a Word that stands firm in this world and in the Hereafter.” (14:27)

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Prophetic Commentary on the Qur’an (Tafseer of the Prophet () Surah Ibrahim, Chapter 2 “Allah will keep firm those who believe with, the word that stands firm…” (V.14:27))

Further in the hadith about questions and answers:

عَنْ أَنَسٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏; الْعَبْدُ إِذَا وُضِعَ فِي قَبْرِهِ، وَتُوُلِّيَ وَذَهَبَ أَصْحَابُهُ حَتَّى إِنَّهُ لَيَسْمَعُ قَرْعَ نِعَالِهِمْ، أَتَاهُ مَلَكَانِ فَأَقْعَدَاهُ فَيَقُولاَنِ لَهُ مَا كُنْتَ تَقُولُ فِي هَذَا الرَّجُلِ مُحَمَّدٍ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَيَقُولُ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّهُ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولُهُ‏.‏ فَيُقَالُ انْظُرْ إِلَى مَقْعَدِكَ مِنَ النَّارِ، أَبْدَلَكَ اللَّهُ بِهِ مَقْعَدًا مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ ـ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَيَرَاهُمَا جَمِيعًا ـ وَأَمَّا الْكَافِرُ ـ أَوِ الْمُنَافِقُ ـ فَيَقُولُ لاَ أَدْرِي، كُنْتُ أَقُولُ مَا يَقُولُ النَّاسُ‏.‏ فَيُقَالُ لاَ دَرَيْتَ وَلاَ تَلَيْتَ‏.‏ ثُمَّ يُضْرَبُ بِمِطْرَقَةٍ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ ضَرْبَةً بَيْنَ أُذُنَيْهِ، فَيَصِيحُ صَيْحَةً يَسْمَعُهَا مَنْ يَلِيهِ إِلاَّ الثَّقَلَيْنِ ‏

( عن انس ؓ، بخاری، کتاب الجنائز ، بَابٌ: المَيِّتُ يَسْمَعُ خَفْقَ النِّعَالِ)

Narrated Anas:The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “When a human being is laid in his grave and his companions return. And he even hears their footsteps two angels come to him and make him sit and ask him: What did you use to say about this man, Muhammad (ﷺ)? He will say: I testify that he is Allah’s slave and His Apostle. Then it will be said to him, ‘Look at your place in the Hell-Fire. Allah has given you a place in Paradise instead of it.’ “The Prophet (ﷺ) added, “The dead person will see both his places. But a non-believer or a hypocrite will say to the angels, ‘I do not know, but I used to say what the people used to say! It will be said to him, ‘Neither did you know nor did you take the guidance.’ Then he will be hit with an iron hammer between his two ears, and he will cry and that cry will be heard by whatever approaches him except human beings and jinns.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Funerals, Chapter: A dead person hears the footsteps)

Note: Other than this we are not taking the hadith narrated by Minhal referred to Azib (رضي الله عنه) as our basis because it is daeef (weak) and against the Quran and Hadith.

The Summary of the above Sahih Hadith is that:

• Dead body of a human had been placed in a grave.

• Question is asked about Muhammad (ﷺ) and, in another hadith, that the question asked about iman (faith).

The hadith earlier mentioned narrated by Asma رضي الله تعالى عنها states the same:

يُؤْتَى أَحَدُكُمْ، فَيُقَالُ

Every one of you will be brought and asked

So, it is clear that every deceased human will be is questionable, but the place for these questions and answers session is not in the worldly graves as not everyone destined to get the worldly graves one. Allah says:

ثُمَّ اَمَاتَهٗ فَاَقْبَرَهٗۙ

Then He causes his death and provides a grave for him.

(Surah Abasa :21)

It means, all who die get a grave. As in communities like Buddhists, fire-worshipers, communists and socialists do not necessarily get an earthy grave. People of Nuh عليه السلام and during the time of Musa عليه السلام the people of Firaun (Pharaoh) who drowned did not get an earthly grave. The people of Madyan (Madin) were also not buried in an earthly grave (Surah Al-Araf: 91, Surah Hud: 11). The nation of Hudعليه  السلام was not buried in these graves (Surah Ahkaf: 25, Surah Zariyat: 41-42, Surah Al-Qamar: 25, Surah Al-Haqqah: 7) these graves were also not the fortune of the nation of Samud عليه السلام (Surah Al-Araf: 78, Surah Hud: 67, Surah Al-Ankabut: 48). We have no idea, how many nations remains were deprived of an earthly grave. So, does it mean that the commandment of Allah: ثُمَّ اَمَاتَہٗ فَاَقۡبَرَہٗ “Then He causes his death and provides a grave for him” was not fulfilled for those nations? Where are they questioned or where do they get the torment of the graves.

The same has been stated in Quran in Surah Al-An’am: 61-62, 93-94 and Surah Al-Jumu’ah:8 that as a person dies his soul is taken to Allah in the skies. The same, has been said in the hadith earlier narrated by Abu Huraira رضي الله عنه that the soul of every deceased taken by the angels to Allah in the heavens. So all humans are brought to this destination after death.

Ponder upon the words of this hadith:

يُؤْتَى أَحَدُكُمْ، فَيُقَالُ

Every one of you will be brought and asked

It means that all will be questioned after death, regardless if they have been buried in an earthly grave or not, whether one is burnt to ashes, cremated or fall prey to wild beasts and birds or decayed by drowning in the sea. It is not an earthly place but as described in the verse of Surah Al-An’am:

  وَلَقَدْ جِئْتُمُوْنَا فُرَادٰي كَمَا خَلَقْنٰكُمْ اَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَّتَرَكْتُمْ مَّا خَوَّلْنٰكُمْ وَرَاۗءَ ظُهُوْرِكُمْ

[It will be said to them], “And you have certainly come to Us alone [i.e., individually] as We created you the first time, and you have left whatever We bestowed upon you behind you.

(Surah Al-An’am : 94)

So, it is a place other than in this earth.

A hadith has been presented from Abu Daud that a person of Bani Israel said to another person that: Allah will not forgive you, so when their souls reached Allah, the one who said such a phrase entered hell and the other whom  was said entered Jannah. Therefore these questioning and answering are done with the souls.

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إِنَّ رَجُلاً كَانَ فِيمَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ أَتَاهُ الْمَلَكُ لِيَقْبِضَ رُوحَهُ فَقِيلَ لَهُ هَلْ عَمِلْتَ مِنْ خَيْرٍ قَالَ مَا أَعْلَمُ، قِيلَ لَهُ انْظُرْ‏.‏ قَالَ مَا أَعْلَمُ شَيْئًا غَيْرَ أَنِّي كُنْتُ أُبَايِعُ النَّاسَ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَأُجَازِيهِمْ، فَأُنْظِرُ الْمُوسِرَ، وَأَتَجَاوَزُ عَنِ الْمُعْسِرِ‏.‏ فَأَدْخَلَهُ اللَّهُ الْجَنَّةَ‏‏.‏

(بخاری: کتاب الانبیاء،با ب ماذکر عن بنی اسرائیل)

“I also heard him saying, ‘From among the people preceding your generation, there was a man whom the angel of death visited to capture his soul. (So his soul was captured) and he was asked if he had done any good deed.’ He replied, ‘I don’t remember any good deed.’ He was asked to think it over. He said, ‘I do not remember, except that I used to trade with the people in the world and I used to give a respite to the rich and forgive the poor (among my debtors). So, Allah made him enter Paradise.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Prophets, Chapter: What has been said about Bani Israel?)

So, it is clear, the questioning and answering is with the soul. And the souls remain in the heavens till the day of judgement. The place where the question and answering or the relief and torment of the graves takes place.

The blessed tongue of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) called this place as “grave”. Aisha رضي الله تعالى عنها says:

إِنَّمَا مَرَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى يَهُودِيَّةٍ يَبْكِي عَلَيْهَا أَهْلُهَا فَقَالَ :إِنَّهُمْ لَيَبْكُونَ عَلَيْهَا، وَإِنَّهَا لَتُعَذَّبُ فِي قَبْرِهَا ‏

( عن عائشہ ؓ ، کتاب الجنائز ، بَابُ قَوْلِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «يُعَذَّبُ المَيِّتُ بِبَعْضِ بُكَاءِ أَهْلِهِ عَلَيْهِ» إِذَا كَانَ النَّوْحُ مِنْ سُنَّتِهِ “)

Once Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) passed by a Jewess whose relatives were weeping over her. He said, “They are weeping over her and she is being tortured in her grave.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Funerals, Chapter: The deceased is punished because of the weeping of his relatives).

إِنَّهُمْ(They) لَيَبْكُونَ(are weeping) عَلَيْهَا (over her)وَإِنَّهَا(and she)

لَتُعَذَّبُ (is being tortured) فِي قَبْرِهَا (in her grave)

Since all this happens in realm of Barzakh (Aalim e Barzakh) so, it is termed as the Graves of barzakh (Barzakhi Qabr). What the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) was saying will be much clearer by the following hadiths:

Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) said to Fatima رضي الله تعالى عنها before the death:

أَنَّهُ يُقْبَضُ فِي وَجَعِهِ الَّذِي تُوُفِّيَ فِيهِ فَبَكَيْتُ، ثُمَّ سَارَّنِي فَأَخْبَرَنِي أَنِّي أَوَّلُ أَهْلِهِ يَتْبَعُهُ فَضَحِكْتُ‏.‏

( عن عائشہ ؓ ، بخاری ، کتاب المغازی ، بَابُ مَرَضِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَوَفَاتِهِ)

Prophet first told me he would expire in that disease in which he died, so I wept then he told me secretly that I would be the first of his family to follow him, so I laughed (at that time).

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Military Expeditions led by the Prophet () (Al-Maghaazi), Chapter: The sickness of the Prophet () and his death))

He (ﷺ) said to his wives:

، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، رضى الله عنها أَنَّ بَعْضَ، أَزْوَاجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قُلْنَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَيُّنَا أَسْرَعُ بِكَ لُحُوقًا قَالَ ‏ ; أَطْوَلُكُنَّ يَدًا ‏‏‏.‏ فَأَخَذُوا قَصَبَةً يَذْرَعُونَهَا، فَكَانَتْ سَوْدَةُ أَطْوَلَهُنَّ يَدًا، فَعَلِمْنَا بَعْدُ أَنَّمَا كَانَتْ طُولَ يَدِهَا الصَّدَقَةُ، وَكَانَتْ أَسْرَعَنَا لُحُوقًا بِهِ وَكَانَتْ تُحِبُّ الصَّدَقَةَ‏.‏

( عن عائشہ ؓ ، بخاری، کتاب الزکاۃ ، بَابُ فَضْلِ صَدَقَةِ الشَّحِيحِ الصَّحِيحِ )

Narrated `Aisha: Some of the wives of the Prophet (ﷺ) asked him, “Who amongst us will be the first to follow you (i.e. die after you)?” He said, “Whoever has the longest hand.” So they started measuring their hands with a stick and Sauda’s hand turned out to be the longest. (When Zainab bint Jahsh died first of all in the caliphate of `Umar), we came to know that the long hand was a symbol of practicing charity, so she was the first to follow the Prophet (ﷺ) and she used to love to practice charity. (Sauda died later in the caliphate of Muawiya)

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Obligatory Charity Tax (Zakat), Chapter: What kind of As-Sadaqa (charity etc.) is superior?)

Now, consider whether Fatima رضي الله تعالى عنها and Zainab رضي الله تعالى عنها are buried in Medina with the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) grave? Or they have met the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) in heavenly (realm of barzakh)!

Let also read this hadees:

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ;‏ حَاجَّ مُوسَى آدَمَ، فَقَالَ لَهُ أَنْتَ الَّذِي أَخْرَجْتَ النَّاسَ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ بِذَنْبِكَ وَأَشْقَيْتَهُمْ‏.‏ قَالَ قَالَ آدَمُ يَا مُوسَى أَنْتَ الَّذِي اصْطَفَاكَ اللَّهُ بِرِسَالَتِهِ وَبِكَلاَمِهِ أَتَلُومُنِي عَلَى أَمْرٍ كَتَبَهُ اللَّهُ عَلَىَّ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْلُقَنِي أَوْ قَدَّرَهُ عَلَىَّ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْلُقَنِي ‏.‏ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسل;‏ فَحَجَّ آدَمُ مُوسَى

( عن ابی ہریرۃ ؓ ، بخاری، کتاب تفسیر القرآن ، بَابُ قَوْلِهِ: {فَلاَ يُخْرِجَنَّكُمَا مِنَ الجَنَّةِ فَتَشْقَى} )

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Moses argued with Adam and said to him (Adam), ‘You are the one who got the people out of Paradise by your sin, and thus made them miserable.” Adam replied, ‘O Moses! You are the one whom Allah selected for His Message and for His direct talk. Yet you blame me for a thing which Allah had ordained for me before He created me?” Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) further said, “So Adam overcame Moses by this Argument.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Prophetic Commentary on the Qur’an (Tafseer of the Prophet (), Chapter The Statement of Allah the Exalted: “…So let him not get you both out of Paradise, so that you be distressed.” (V.20:117))

Now consider that, Adam عليه السلام came to Moses عليه السلام in this worldly grave or this is related to the realm of barzakh (Aalim e Barzakh)?

Let us now consider the following additional hadith, the actions of the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) indicate that he did not believe the torment of the grave to occur in the worldly grave.

فَرَأَيْتُهُمْ قُتِلُوا يَوْمَ بَدْرٍ، فَأُلْقُوا فِي بِئْرٍ غَيْرَ أُمَيَّةَ أَوْ أُبَىٍّ تَقَطَّعَتْ أَوْصَالُهُ، فَلَمْ يُلْقَ فِي الْبِئْرِ‏.

‏( عن عبد اللہ ؓ ، بخاری ، کتاب مناقب الانصار ، بَابُ مَا لَقِيَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَأَصْحَابُهُ مِنَ المُشْرِكِينَ بِمكَّةَ)

I saw these people killed on the day of Badr battle and thrown in the well except Umaiya or Ubai whose body parts were mutilated but he was not thrown in the well.

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Merits of the Helpers in Madinah (Ansaar), Chapter: (The troubles which) the Mushrikun caused)

عَنْ أَنَسٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ كَانَ رَجُلٌ نَصْرَانِيًّا فَأَسْلَمَ وَقَرَأَ الْبَقَرَةَ وَآلَ عِمْرَانَ، فَكَانَ يَكْتُبُ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم، فَعَادَ نَصْرَانِيًّا فَكَانَ يَقُولُ مَا يَدْرِي مُحَمَّدٌ إِلاَّ مَا كَتَبْتُ لَهُ، فَأَمَاتَهُ اللَّهُ فَدَفَنُوهُ، فَأَصْبَحَ وَقَدْ لَفَظَتْهُ الأَرْضُ فَقَالُوا هَذَا فِعْلُ مُحَمَّدٍ وَأَصْحَابِهِ، لَمَّا هَرَبَ مِنْهُمْ نَبَشُوا عَنْ صَاحِبِنَا‏.‏ فَأَلْقُوهُ فَحَفَرُوا لَهُ فَأَعْمَقُوا، فَأَصْبَحَ وَقَدْ لَفَظَتْهُ الأَرْضُ، فَقَالُوا هَذَا فِعْلُ مُحَمَّدٍ وَأَصْحَابِهِ نَبَشُوا عَنْ صَاحِبِنَا لَمَّا هَرَبَ مِنْهُمْ‏.‏ فَأَلْقَوْهُ فَحَفَرُوا لَهُ، وَأَعْمَقُوا لَهُ فِي الأَرْضِ مَا اسْتَطَاعُوا، فَأَصْبَحَ قَدْ لَفَظَتْهُ الأَرْضُ، فَعَلِمُوا أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنَ النَّاسِ فَأَلْقَوْهُ‏.‏

( عن انس ؓ ، بخاری ، کتاب المناقب ، بَابُ عَلاَمَاتِ النُّبُوَّةِ فِي الإِسْلاَمِ )

Narrated Anas:

There was a Christian who embraced Islam and read Surat-al-Baqara and Al-`Imran, and he used to write (the revelations) for the Prophet. Later on he returned to Christianity again and he used to say: “Muhammad knows nothing but what I have written for him.” Then Allah caused him to die, and the people buried him, but in the morning they saw that the earth had thrown his body out. They said, “This is the act of Muhammad and his companions. They dug the grave of our companion and took his body out of it because he had run away from them.” They again dug the grave deeply for him, but in the morning they again saw that the earth had thrown his body out. They said, “This is an act of Muhammad and his companions. They dug the grave of our companion and threw his body outside it, for he had run away from them.” They dug the grave for him as deep as they could, but in the morning they again saw that the earth had thrown his body out. So they believed that what had befallen him was not done by human beings and had to leave him thrown (on the ground).

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Virtues and Merits of the Prophet () and his Companions, Chapter: The signs of Prophethood in Islam).

Read this hadees and see what was the belief of Prophet ﷺ and Sahaba رضی اللہ عنہم اجمعین:

عَنْ أَنَسٍ، قَالَ قَدِمَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْمَدِينَةَ فَنَزَلَ أَعْلَى الْمَدِينَةِ، فِي حَىٍّ يُقَالُ لَهُمْ بَنُو عَمْرِو بْنِ عَوْفٍ‏.‏ فَأَقَامَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِيهِمْ أَرْبَعَ عَشْرَةَ لَيْلَةً، ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَ إِلَى بَنِي النَّجَّارِ فَجَاءُوا مُتَقَلِّدِي السُّيُوفِ، كَأَنِّي أَنْظُرُ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى رَاحِلَتِهِ، وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ رِدْفُهُ، وَمَلأُ بَنِي النَّجَّارِ حَوْلَهُ، حَتَّى أَلْقَى بِفِنَاءِ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ، وَكَانَ يُحِبُّ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ حَيْثُ أَدْرَكَتْهُ الصَّلاَةُ، وَيُصَلِّي فِي مَرَابِضِ الْغَنَمِ، وَأَنَّهُ أَمَرَ بِبِنَاءِ الْمَسْجِدِ، فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَى مَلإٍ مِنْ بَنِي النَّجَّارِ فَقَالَ ‏”‏ يَا بَنِي النَّجَّارِ ثَامِنُونِي بِحَائِطِكُمْ هَذَا ‏”‏‏.‏ قَالُوا لاَ وَاللَّهِ، لاَ نَطْلُبُ ثَمَنَهُ إِلاَّ إِلَى اللَّهِ‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَنَسٌ فَكَانَ فِيهِ مَا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ، قُبُورُ الْمُشْرِكِينَ، وَفِيهِ خَرِبٌ، وَفِيهِ نَخْلٌ

Narrated Anas:

When the Prophet (ﷺ) arrived Medina he dismounted at `Awali-i-Medina amongst a tribe called Banu `Amr bin `Auf. He stayed there for fourteen nights. Then he sent for Bani An-Najjar and they came armed with their swords. As if I am looking (just now) as the Prophet (ﷺ) was sitting over his Rahila (Mount) with Abu Bakr riding behind him and all Banu An-Najjar around him till he dismounted at the courtyard of Abu Aiyub’s house. The Prophet (ﷺ) loved to pray wherever the time for the prayer was due even at sheep-folds. Later on he ordered that a mosque should be built and sent for some people of Banu-An-Najjar and said, “O Banu An-Najjar! Suggest to me the price of this (walled) piece of land of yours.” They replied, “No! By Allah! We do not demand its price except from Allah.” Anas added: There were graves of pagans in it and some of it was unlevelled and there were some date-palm trees in it.

، فَأَمَرَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِقُبُورِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ فَنُبِشَتْ، ثُمَّ بِالْخَرِبِ فَسُوِّيَتْ، وَبِالنَّخْلِ فَقُطِعَ، فَصَفُّوا النَّخْلَ قِبْلَةَ الْمَسْجِدِ، وَجَعَلُوا عِضَادَتَيْهِ الْحِجَارَةَ، وَجَعَلُوا يَنْقُلُونَ الصَّخْرَ، وَهُمْ يَرْتَجِزُونَ، وَالنَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مَعَهُمْ وَهُوَ يَقُولُ ‏”‏ اللَّهُمَّ لاَ خَيْرَ إِلاَّ خَيْرُ الآخِرَهْ فَاغْفِرْ لِلأَنْصَارِ وَالْمُهَاجِرَهْ ‏”‏

( عن انس بن مالک ؓ ، بخاری، کتاب الصلاۃ ، بَابٌ: هَلْ تُنْبَشُ قُبُورُ مُشْرِكِي الجَاهِلِيَّةِ، وَيُتَّخَذُ مَكَانُهَا مَسَاجِدَ )

 The Prophet () ordered that the graves of the pagans be dug out and the unlevelled land be levelled and the date-palm trees be cut down. (So all that was done). They aligned these cut date-palm trees towards the Qibla of the mosque (as a wall) and they also built two stone side-walls (of the mosque). His companions brought the stones while reciting some poetic verses. The Prophet (ﷺ) was with them and he kept on saying, “There is no goodness except that of the Hereafter, O Allah! So please forgive the Ansars and the emigrants. “

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Prayers (Salat), Chapter: Is it permissible to dig the graves of pagans of the period of Ignorance, and to use that place as a mosque?)

Let us review that if the torment is in this earthly grave, then why did the  Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) dig up the graves of the polytheists.

By not burying the pieces of the body of Allah’s enemy Ummaya Bin Khalf, was he saved from the torment of the grave, similarly that the apostate also escaped from the torment of the grave whose body was thrown out of his grave. These actions of the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) have made the fact clear that this grave is only to conceal the physical dead body and has “NO” connection with the soul.

Based on the Quran and sahih Hadith in this complete series has cleared the fact that;

● When a person dies his hereafter begins immediately. The soul travels to heaven or hell, where the good is rewarded or the evil punished.

● As soon as the soul has departed the body becomes free from any feelings and emotions and the decomposition process commences.

● The torment of the grave is part of the suffering of the hereafter and it all takes place in the heavens (skies) in the realm of barzakh (Aalim e Barzakh).

● This torment will end only on the day of resurrection when Allah will return the souls to the worldly bodies to restore with life in them and on that day of the judgement they will enter heaven or hell and finally for them death will exist no more.

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Sending Durood ‘درود’ on the Prophet ﷺin the light of Qur’an and Hadith

بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

It is common belief amongst South Asian Muslims that they are supposed to send ‘durood’ and salam to the Prophet who receives them in his grave and replies back to the salam.  This article looks at the very concept and its status in the light of Qur’an and Hadith.

I – What is practice of sending Durood?

The basis for this practice is said to be the Qur’anic ayat:

اِنَّ اللّٰهَ وَ مَلٰٓىِٕكَتَهٗ يُصَلُّوْنَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ١ؕ يٰۤاَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا صَلُّوْا عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلِّمُوْا تَسْلِيْمًا۰۰۵۶

[الأحزاب: 56]

Allah sends His Salat (Graces, Honors, Blessings, Mercy) on the Prophet (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), and also His angels (ask Allah to bless and forgive him). O you who believe! Pray (to Allah) to bless him (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), and greet (salam) him.

Surah Ahzaab Ayat 56

Most people think that ‘sending’ blessings upon the prophet (ﷺ) is one of the greatest acts of worship and is the most beneficial dua for this world and the hereafter for any Muslim. There are many wordings used for ‘durood shareef’ as commonly known. One of them, when recited over long period, is believed to bless the reciter with the ‘basharat’ that ismeeting the prophet (ﷺ) in the reciter’s dream.

II – Etymology of the word ‘salat’ and ‘durood’.

The ulema of the subcontinent has used the word ‘durood’ to convey the meaning of ‘salat for the Prophet (ﷺ)’ and it has now become so much used that none would believe if told that the actual word is ‘salat’ not durood.

In the above mentioned, the word ‘durood’ has been used nowhere, but the translators translate it as ‘send durood’. ‘durood’ is neither an Arabic nor an Urdu word. In fact, it is a Persian word which means ‘greetings’ like salam in Arabic. One paper written in Persian available on the internet asked Persian speaking people to use Persian word ‘durood’ instead of promoting Arabic culture using ‘salam’.  ‘Salat’ is an Arabic word that means ‘mercy’ or ‘prayer’. In the same Sura al Ahzab, where this word has been used for the holy prophet (SAW), same word has been used for other believers also. See

هُوَ الَّذِيْ يُصَلِّيْ عَلَيْكُمْ وَ مَلٰٓىِٕكَتُهٗ لِيُخْرِجَكُمْ مِّنَ الظُّلُمٰتِ اِلَى النُّوْرِ١ؕ وَ كَانَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ رَحِيْمًا۰۰۴۳

 [الأحزاب: 43]

He it is Who sends Salat (His blessings, mercy) on you, and His angels too (ask Allah to bless and forgive you), that He may bring you out from darkness (of disbelief and polytheism) into light (of Belief and Islamic Monotheism). And He is Ever Most Merciful to the believer.  

Surah Ahzaab : 43

هُوَ الَّذِيْ ( It is he) يُصَلِّيْ ( He sends blessings ) عَلَيْكُمْ ( on you) وَمَلٰۗىِٕكَتُهٗ ( and His angels) لِيُخْرِجَكُمْ ( to  take you out ) مِّنَ الظُّلُمٰتِ اِلَى النُّوْرِ ( from dark towards light ) وَكَانَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ رَحِيْمًا  ( and He is the most merciful to the believers. )۔

To send mercy or blessings on the believers means that Allah guides them to the right path and protects them from the problems and misfortunes of this world. The interpretation of the angels’ mercy on the believers means that they (angels) pray to Allah Almighty for them (believers).

But, in this verse the word ‘salat’ is translated as ‘blessing’ or ‘mercy’. Why is there a difference of the meaning of the same word? It is because of a self-made belief that this ‘durood’ is presented to the holy prophet ﷺ. Let’s try to understand this matter from the holy Quran and hadith.  

If we study hadiths we find that the word ’’ صلی ‘‘ does not mean “Durood”. Whenever any companion (R.A) used to bring zakat to Prophet Muhammad (SAW), he (SAW) used to pray for him:

اللهم صل علی آل فلان  “O Allah, send blessings on so-and-so.”

اللهم صل علی آل أبي أوفی ـO Allah, send blessings on Abi Aufa

( بخاری، کتاب الزکوٰۃ، بَابُ صَلاَةِ الإِمَامِ، وَدُعَائِهِ لِصَاحِبِ الصَّدَقَةِ)

It is clear that meaning of “صلی” is not “Durood” but “Blessing”. Let’s come back to other verse of the same sura (chapter).

اِنَّ اللّٰهَ وَ مَلٰٓىِٕكَتَهٗ يُصَلُّوْنَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ١ؕ يٰۤاَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا صَلُّوْا عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلِّمُوْا تَسْلِيْمًا۰۰۵۶

[الأحزاب: 56]

Allah sends His Salat (Graces, Honors, Blessings, Mercy) on the Prophet (Muhammad ﷺ), and also His angels (ask Allah to bless and forgive him). O you who believe! Pray  (ask Allah to bless) him (Muhammad ﷺ), and (you should) greet (salute) him.

اِنَّ اللّٰهَ ( Indeed Allah ) وَمَلٰىِٕكَتَهٗ (and his angels ) يُصَلُّوْنَ (Graces/ Honors / Bless ) عَلَي النَّبِيِّ ( to Nabi saaw ) يٰٓاَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا ( O you believers) صَلُّوْا عَلَيْهِ (ask Allah to bless him)۔

It is narrated in Bukhari that:


عَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنَ أَبِي لَيْلَى، قَالَ: لَقِيَنِي كَعْبُ بْنُ عُجْرَةَ، فَقَالَ: أَلاَ أُهْدِي لَكَ هَدِيَّةً سَمِعْتُهَا مِنَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ؟ فَقُلْتُ: بَلَى، فَأَهْدِهَا لِي، فَقَالَ: سَأَلْنَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقُلْنَا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، كَيْفَ الصَّلاَةُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ البَيْتِ، فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ عَلَّمَنَا كَيْفَ نُسَلِّمُ عَلَيْكُمْ؟ قَالَ: ” قُولُوا: اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ، اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ “

( بخاری ، کتاب الانبیاء )

Narrated Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Laila: Ka’b bin Ujrah met me and said, “Shall I not give you a present I got from the Prophet?” ‘Abdur-Rahman said, “Yes, give it to me.” I said, “We asked Allah’s Apostle saying, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! How should one (ask Allah to) send blessings on you, the members of the family, for Allah has taught us how to salute you (in the prayer)?’ He said, ‘Say: O Allah! Send Your Mercy on Muhammad and on the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your Mercy on Abraham and on the family of Abraham, for You are the Most Praise-worthy, the Most Glorious. O Allah! Send Your Blessings on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as You sent your Blessings on Abraham and on the family of Abraham, for You are the Most Praise-worthy, the Most Glorious.’

اللهم( O Allah) صل  ( send your mercy) علی ( on ) محمد ( Muhammad ﷺ ) و ( and )علی ( on ) آل محمد ( family of Muhammad ) کما ( as ) صليت ( you sent your mercy ) علی ( on ) إبراهيم ( Ibrahim ؑ)  و ( and )علی ( on ) آل إبراهيم ( family of Ibrahim ) إنک ( Indeed you ) حميد مجيد ( most praise worthy )  اللهم ( O my Allah ) بارک  ( blessings )علی محمد وعلی آل محمد کما بارکت علی إبراهيم وعلی آل إبراهيم إنک حميد مجيد                                                      

So, it is clear that the word ‘salat’ means to pray for the mercy from Allah for the holy prophet (SAW). Each prayer is presented in the court of Allah. There is a great reward of the prayer of mercy for the holy prophet (SAW). 

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: مَنْ صَلَّى عَلَيَّ وَاحِدَةً صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ عَشْرًا

( مسلم ،  کتاب الصلوٰۃ، باب : تشہد  ۔ ۔ ۔)

Narrated Abu Huraira (RA) the holy prophet SAW said: “A person who prays for me once from Allah, for His mercy upon me, Allah showers His ten blessings upon him ten times”.

(Sahih Muslim, The book of prayer)

III – Is ‘durood’ or ‘salat’ presented to Allah or the Prophet (ﷺ) in his grave

Now it has become clear that ‘durood’ is in fact a dua for the Prophet (ﷺ). When it is a prayer, then how it can be presented to anyone except Allah. The prayers are presented to Him and He is the one Who accepts the prayers. It is proved in the authentic ahadith (sayings of our prophet) that Muhammad (ﷺ) is alive in the highest place in paradise.

عَنْ أَنَسٍ قَالَ لَمَّا ثَقُلَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ جَعَلَ يَتَغَشَّاهُ فَقَالَتْ فَاطِمَةُ عَلَيْهَا السَّلَام وَا کَرْبَ أَبَاهُ فَقَالَ لَهَا لَيْسَ عَلَی أَبِيکِ کَرْبٌ بَعْدَ الْيَوْمِ فَلَمَّا مَاتَ قَالَتْ يَا أَبَتَاهُ أَجَابَ رَبًّا دَعَاهُ يَا أَبَتَاهْ مَنْ جَنَّةُ الْفِرْدَوْسِ مَأْوَاهْ يَا أَبَتَاهْ إِلَی جِبْرِيلَ نَنْعَاهْ فَلَمَّا دُفِنَ قَالَتْ فَاطِمَةُ عَلَيْهَا السَّلَام يَا أَنَسُ أَطَابَتْ أَنْفُسُکُمْ أَنْ تَحْثُوا عَلَی رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ التُّرَابَ

(صحیح البخاری: کتاب المغازی؛ بَابُ مَرَضِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَوَفَاتِهِ )

Narrated Anas: When the ailment of the Prophet got aggravated, he became unconscious whereupon Fatima said, Oh, how distressed my father is!   He said, your father will have no more distress after today.   When he expired, she said, O Father! Who has responded to the call of the Lord Who has invited him! O Father, whose dwelling place is the Garden of Paradise (i.e. Al-Firdaus)! O Father! We convey this news (of your death) to Gabriel.   When he was buried, Fatima said, O Anas! Do you feel pleased to throw earth over Allah’s Apostle?

When we compare both of these matters, it becomes clear that this belief is absolutely wrong and the ahadith presented in this matter are also weak (zaeef) and are criticized by muhaddiseen. 

When the prophet ﷺ used to pray, was it presented to him? Is it proved from the hadith that the prayers of the prophet’s companions were presented to the prophet ﷺ ? At the time of the battle of Hudaibia, the prophet (SAW) put his hand and said during the allegiance that it was from Uthman (RA). On the other hand, Uthman (RA) was alive and he must have been offering prayers and reciting this prayer (durood) at least five times a day, then why didn’t the Prophet (ﷺ) say that he (Uthman RA) was alive and his prayer (durood) was presented to him.

It is also worth noting that the Durood starts from the words ‘Allah huma’ or ‘O Allah!’ Can the angels then take it to the Prophet?! The salaat o salaam or Durood is actually a dua to Allah to bless Muhammed. Duas are always addressed to Allah, not the intended beneficiary of the dua! We must not forget that dua is the highest and best form of worship in Islam and worship is only for Allah. This is what Muhammed () taught us through the ‘al-tahiyyaat’ recited in tashshahud of the salat:

قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ: كُنَّا إِذَا صَلَّيْنَا خَلْفَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، قُلْنَا: السَّلاَمُ عَلَى جِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَائِيلَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَى فُلاَنٍ وَفُلاَنٍ، فَالْتَفَتَ إِلَيْنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ: ” إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ السَّلاَمُ، فَإِذَا صَلَّى أَحَدُكُمْ، فَلْيَقُلْ: التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ، فَإِنَّكُمْ إِذَا قُلْتُمُوهَا أَصَابَتْ كُلَّ عَبْدٍ لِلَّهِ صَالِحٍ فِي السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

( بخاری، کتاب الاذان ، بَابُ التَّشَهُّدِ فِي الآخِرَةِ )

‘Abdullah said, “Whenever we prayed behind the Prophet ﷺ we used to recite (in sitting) ‘Peace be on Gabriel (علیہ السلام), Michael, peace be on so and so. Once Allah’s Apostle ﷺ looked back at us and said, ‘Allah Himself is As-Salam (Peace), and if anyone of you prays then he should say, At-Tahiyatu lil-lahi wassalawatu wat-taiyibatu. AsSalamu ‘alalika aiyuha-n-Nabiyu wa rahmatu-l-lahi wa barakatuhu. As-Salam alaina wa ala ibadil-lah is-salihin. (All the compliments, prayers and good things are due to Allah: peace be on you, O Prophet ﷺ and Allah’s mercy and blessings be on you. Peace be on us an on the true pious slaves of Allah). (If you say that, it will be for all the slaves in the heaven and the earth). Ash-hadu an la-ilaha illa-l-lahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa Rasuluhu. (I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and I also testify that Muhammad is His slave and His Apostle) ﷺ .”

We can conclude that matters of this Universe are returned to Allah, not to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. Whoever insists that matters are taken to the Prophet in fact associates the Prophet with Allah in His Attributes and Authority and thus commits Shirk. The aqeedah (belief) that Durood (salaat-o-salaam) is taken to the Prophet rather than Allah, or taken to the Prophet in addition to its presentation to Allah, is also open Shirk. To make such a false aqeedah (belief)  a part of our faith is a negation of Allah’s Book and the certain consequence of such negation is eternal punishment of the Fire.May Allah save us from Shirk.

IV – Status of Ahadith for ‘durood’ going to the grave

To prove their false belief to be correct, sect followers bring some Maudhu and Munkir hadith reports. Let’s analyze these reports.

Narration 1

عَنْ الْأَسْوَدِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ قَالَ إِذَا صَلَّيْتُمْ عَلَی رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَأَحْسِنُوا الصَّلَاةَ عَلَيْهِ فَإِنَّکُمْ لَا تَدْرُونَ لَعَلَّ ذَلِکَ يُعْرَضُ عَلَيْهِ

( سنن ابن ماجہ ، کتاب اقامۃ الصلوٰۃ ،، بَابُ الصَّلَاةِ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ )

اIt is reported from Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud that when you send Durood to the messenger, then recite the Durood properly. You may not know it but it could be that it is being presented to the Prophet. [Ibn Maja, Vol 1, p. 258]

One of the transmitters of this hadith is Mas’udi, who has been criticized. Mas’udi’s full name was Abdur Rehman bin Abdullah bin Utba bin Abdullah bin al-Sadi bin Al-Mas’udi Al-Kufi. Some imams have not allowed narrating from him (considered it makrooh), as he became senile in his old age. [Meezan ul Aitadal, vol. 3, p. 209].

Due to Mas’udi’s weakness this hadith is not acceptable.

Narration 2

عَنْ اَبِیْ ھُرَیْرَۃَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللہ مَنْ صَلّٰی عَلَیَّ عِنْدَ قَبْرِیْ سَمِعْتُہٗ وَ مَنْ صَلّٰی عَلَیَّ نَائِیاً مِنْ قَبْرِیْ اُبْلِغْتُہٗ

(رواہ عُقیلی وقال لَا اَصْلَ لَہٗ)

It is narrated from Abu Huraira that Muhammad (ﷺ) said, “Whoever reads the Durood near my grave, I listen to it. And if he recites it at a distance, then the Durood is brought to me.”

Imam ‘Aqeeli has brought this report in his book ‘Zu’fa al Kabir’ [the book of major weak hadith]. This fact alone is sufficient to state that this hadith is weak. Imam ‘Aqeeli says that this report has no truth. One of its transmitters is Muhammad bin Marwan. Jareer and Ibn Nameer consider him a liar. Ibn Hibban and Saleh bin Muhammad have said that he used to fabricate hadith.  Nisai has issued a similar verdict (Tahzeeb ul Kamal vol. 26, p. 393; Zu’fa al Kabir by ‘Aqeeli vol. 4, p. 136; Kitab ul Zu’fa al-Matrukeen by Nisai vol. 7, p. 512].

A similar report is narrated by Ibn Wahab who is considered to be a liar and fabricator of hadith. [See Meezan ul Aitadal vol. 3, p. 278]

Narration 3

قَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللہ مَا مِنْ عَبْدٍ یُسَلِّمُ عَلَیَّ عِنْدَ قَبْرِیْ اِلَّا وَکَّلَ اﷲُ بِھَا مَلَکاً یُّبَلِّغُنِیْ وَکُفیٰ أمْرَآخِرَتِہٖ وَ دُنْیَاہٖ وَ کُنْتُ لَہٗ شَھِیْداً اَوْ شَفِیْعاً یَّوْمًا الْقِیٰمَۃِ

(رواہ البیھقی فی شعب الایمان)

The Messenger (ﷺ) said, “When someone says the salaam near my grave, Allah stations an angel there who brings the salaam to me. And the person reciting it is looked after in this world and the Hereafter. And on the Day of Qayamah (resurrection) , I will be his intercessor.” [Abu Dawud]

One of the narrators of this report is Muhammed bin Musa who is a liar. Ibn ‘Adi stated that this man used to fabricate hadith. Ibn Hibban said that Muhammad bin Musa used to fabricate hadith and is known to have fabricated over 1000 reports. [Meezan ul Aitadal, vol. 3, p. 141]

A similar narration is found in Abu Dawud vol. 1, p. 384 and has been narrated by Muhammad bin ‘Auf.  Dhahabi says that Muhammed bin ‘Auf narrates from Saleem bin Uthman and Saleem is Majhool (i.e. there isn’t much known about him or his credibility as a narrator).

Narration 4

حُسَيْنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ بْنِ جَابِرٍ، عَنْ أَبِي الْأَشْعَثِ الصَّنْعَانِيِّ، عَنْ أَوْسِ بْنِ أَوْسٍ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِنَّ مِنْ أَفْضَلِ أَيَّامِكُمْ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ، فِيهِ خُلِقَ آدَمُ، وَفِيهِ قُبِضَ، وَفِيهِ النَّفْخَةُ، وَفِيهِ الصَّعْقَةُ، فَأَكْثِرُوا عَلَيَّ مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ فِيهِ، فَإِنَّ صَلَاتَكُمْ مَعْرُوضَةٌ عَلَيَّ» قَالَ: قَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، وَكَيْفَ تُعْرَضُ صَلَاتُنَا عَلَيْكَ وَقَدْ أَرِمْتَ – يَقُولُونَ: بَلِيتَ -؟ فَقَالَ: «إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ حَرَّمَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ أَجْسَادَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ»

(ابوداؤد کتاب تَفْرِيعِ أَبْوَابِ الْجُمُعَةِ  بَابُ فَضْلِ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ وَلَيْلَةِ الْجُمُعَةِ ، نسائی:91/3 ح 1636 اور ابن ماجہ: 1085،والدارمي(1/369)- ، وابن حبان (550) ، والحاكم (1/278) ، والبيهقي (3/248))

The Prophet said: Among the most excellent of your days is Friday so invoke more blessings on me that day, for your blessings will be submitted to me. Allah, the Exalted, has prohibited the earth from consuming the bodies of Prophets.  

[Nisai vol. 1, p. 139; Musnad Ahmed vol. 4, p. 8; Abu Dawud vol. 1, p. 150]

One of the narrators, Hammad bin Usama, has erroneously attributed this narration to the trusted narrator Abdur Rehman bin Yazeed bin Jabir. In fact, this narration has been reported by Abdur Rehman bin Yazeed bin Tamim. [See Al-Tareekh al-Kabeer vol. 3, p. 365, Al-Tareekh al-Sagheer p. 175, written by Imam Bukhari]

Imam Razi declares this report as munkir in his book ‘Alal al-Hadith’ (vol. 1, p. 197). He gives the same verdict in another book ‘Kitab al-Jirah wa Ta’deel’ (vol. 5, p. 300-301) and adds that this report was fabricated.

Narration 5

اِنَّ لِلہ مَلٰٓئِکَۃً سَیَّاحِیْنَ فِی الْاَرْضِ یُبَلِّغُوْنِیْ مِنْ اُمَّتِیَ السَّلاَمَ

(نسائی :کتاب السھو،صفحہ189/مشکوٰۃ:صفحہ84)

It is reported from Abdullah bin Mas’ud that Allah’s Messenger said, “Angels keep travelling on the earth and bring the salaam of my Ummah to me.”

One of its narrators, Zazaan, was a Shi’a and the Shi’a believed that matters were presented to their imams for decision; thus this report from Zazaan confirms his Shi’ism and it is because of this innovated belief that this report is not acceptable. [Taqreeb al-Tehzeeb, p. 105]

So these are the narrations brought to the discussion to convince people that the Durood and other matters are taken to the Prophet ﷺ. Not one of these narrations is reliable. Not one is worthy of providing a basis for Belief. What is astonishing is that the most authentic books of hadith, Sahihain of Bukhari and Muslim and the Muwatta of Imam Malik, do not contain such reports.   

IV – Conclusion

  1. “Durood” is neither an Arabic word nor an Urdu word but it is a Persian word. “Salli” is an Arabic word which means “mercy” and “dua”.
  2. The fact that Allah Ta’ala sends mercy on the believers is that He guides them and saves them from the calamities and calamities of this world.
  3. It is clear from the ahadith that the Prophet () is in Paradise after his death. He is not alive in this tomb in Madinah. Nor is there any evidence from the Qur’an or Hadith that his soul is returned to his grave and he responds to people’s greetings by being resurrected.
  4. All the narrations, in which prayers and peace are being presented to the Prophet () in the grave are contrary to the Qur’an and the authentic ahadiths and are clearly false.

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website introduction

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم

‏  بَدَأَ الإِسْلاَمُ غَرِيبًا وَسَيَعُودُ كَمَا بَدَأَ غَرِيبًا فَطُوبَى لِلْغُرَبَاءِ ‏.‏

Islam initiated as something strange, and it would revert to its (old position) of being strange. so good tidings for the stranger.

(Sahih Muslim, The Book of Faith – كتاب الإيمان, Hadith 145, Chapter: Clarifying that Islam started as something strange, and will revert to being something strange, and it will retreat between the two Masajid)

Circa 1400 years ago, the Prophet (ﷺ) preached about the Oneness of Allah to his people. The people believed in Allah, but Islam was strange to them. Islam speaks of one God (Allah) that there is no god but Allah. (La ilaha illa Allah). They believed that the Creator of the heavens and the earth is Allah Almighty, the Knower of all things. (Surah Luqman: 25, Surah Az-Zukhruf: 9). They believed in Allah Almighty as the provider and that the power of seeing and hearing is given by Him and that all matters are under His control (Surah Yunus: 31, Surah Al-Mu’minun:84-89, Surah Al-Ankabut: 61-63).

The mushrikeen (the one who associates with Allah) of that time also used to invoke (dua) Allah (Surah Al-An’am:40-41). They used to perform prayer (Salah) (Sahih Muslim, The Book of the Merits of the Companions). They used to fast (Sahih Muslim, The Book of Fasting, Chapter: Fasting on the day of Ashura’). They used to give charity (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Sales and Trade). They even used to perform Hajj of Bait-ul-Allah and recite the Talbiyah (اللھم لبیک) (O Allah here I am) in it.

Despite these beliefs and deeds, the Prophet said, “Islam was strange,” no one was aware of it. Why was this said even the Book of Allah confirms that they believed and worshiped Allah? In reality, the difference was that Islam is based on “There is no god but Allah and Muhammad (ﷺ) is the messenger of Allah” لا الٰہ الا اللہ محمد رسول اللہ. This invitation towards no other god except the one and only Allah was strange to them. They made an idol of “Lat” (the righteous man of their time), they used to invoke Lat and Uzza. (Sahih Bukhari, Prophetic Commentary on the Qur’an (Tafseer of the Prophet (ﷺ)). They made idols of the Prophets (علیہم السلام) (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Hajj (Pilgrimage)), they used to predict omen from them. They used to seek help in absentia (ghaibana) from Hubal. (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad)). They used to create sanctums of the Prophets graves and other pious people for worship. (Sahih Muslim, the Book of Mosques and Places of Prayer).  The point is that they made honourable people in the shape of idols their “God.”

They rejected the invitation to worship one God (Allah) instead of their numerous gods. This is still prevalent in our present times and instead of invoking Allah, the misguided witness bearers have made various dead humans their gods, problem solvers (Mushkil Kusha), the one who gives to the poor (Gharib Nawaz) or the provider (Daata).

Islam is the religion given by Allah, other religions besides Islam have been adopted in the name of Islam. Allah said in the Quran:

اِنَّ الدِّيْنَ عِنْدَ اللّٰهِ الْاِسْلَامُ

“Indeed, the religion in the sight of Allah is Islam”

(Surah Ali ‘Imran: 19)

And also stated in the same surah :

وَ مَنْ يَّبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الْاِسْلَامِ دِيْنًا فَلَنْ يُّقْبَلَ مِنْهُ١ۚ وَ هُوَ فِي الْاٰخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخٰسِرِيْنَ

“And whoever desires other than Islam as a religion – never will it be accepted from him, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers”

(Surah Ali ‘Imran: 85).

But the ummah has accepted the religions of sects formed in the name of Islam such as Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, Hanbali, Deobandi, Barelvi, Shia, Ahl-e-Hadith, Salafi, and Sufism etc. It does not end here, they also have adopted the system of democracy created by the Jews and Christians as a part of Islam.

When our Allah is one, the last Prophet ﷺ is one, the Qur’an is one, the commentary of the Qur’an in the form of authentic hadiths is one then why and how were these sects formed? Of course, these sects had some differences with the Qur’an and Hadiths that led them to create a separate group.

Since this common witness bearer (the one who claims to take Shahadah) is far from the Qur’an and Hadith, so now for him whatever his Imam or sheikh of the sect has said or given fatwas are Islam to him, so today Islam has become strange again. Sheikhs and Imams of these sects have made enormous changes in the belief, and because of these changes, the witness bearer partakes in shirk (associating partners with Allah).

This website is published as an attempt to make people aware of the false beliefs spread throughout this ummah. Our effort is to point out the different aspects of faiths, so they recognize the commandments of Allah and the teachings of His last Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) to save themselves and their loved ones from the eternal fire of Hell. There are possibilities of mistakes in this website due to human errors. You are most welcome to point them out provided you do so with evidence from the Qur’an and Sahih Hadiths so that we can rectify them.

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The infamy of shirk

بسم اللہ الرحمٰن الرحیم

إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ لِلَّهِ، نَحْمَدُهُ وَنَسْتَعِينُهُ، مَنْ يَهْدِهِ اللهُ فَلَا مُضِلَّ لَهُ، وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلَا هَادِيَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، أَمَّا بَعْدُ

In previous post, we explained the meaning of shirk and some of the shirk’s beliefs and practices prevalent in this ummah. In that post, we have stated the command of Allah that for the one who dies in the state of shirk, Allah Almighty has declared eternal Hell as obligatory and Paradise as forbidden. In this post, we will further point out from the Qur’an and Hadith, In Sha Allah, what a heinous act shirk is. In Surah An’am, Allah Almighty mentions eighteen chosen Prophets (peace be upon them) i.e. Isaac, Jacob, Noah, David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, Aaron, Zechariah, John, Jesus, Elias, Ishmael, Jesus, Jonah and Lot.

وَ اِسْمٰعِيْلَ وَ الْيَسَعَ وَ يُوْنُسَ وَ لُوْطًا١ؕ وَ كُلًّا فَضَّلْنَا عَلَى الْعٰلَمِيْنَۙ

__and Ismai’l and Yasa_ and Yunus and LuT, and all of them We made to excel over all the people of the world (in their respective times).

(Al Anaam : 86)

وَ مِنْ اٰبَآىِٕهِمْ وَ ذُرِّيّٰتِهِمْ وَ اِخْوَانِهِمْ١ۚ وَ اجْتَبَيْنٰهُمْ وَ هَدَيْنٰهُمْ اِلٰى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيْمٍ

And [some] among their fathers and their descendants and their brothers – and We chose them and We guided them to a straight path.

 Al An’am : 87

ذٰلِكَ هُدَى اللّٰه ِ يَهْدِيْ بِهٖ مَنْ يَّشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهٖ١ؕ وَ لَوْ اَشْرَكُوْا لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُمْ مَّا كَانُوْا يَعْمَلُوْنَ

That is the guidance of Allah by which He guides whomever He wills of His servants. But if they had associated others with Allah, then worthless for them would be whatever they were doing.

 (Al An’am: 88)

Allah said in Surah Az-Zumar:

وَ لَقَدْ اُوْحِيَ اِلَيْكَ وَ اِلَى الَّذِيْنَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ١ۚ لَىِٕنْ اَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ وَ لَتَكُوْنَنَّ مِنَ الْخٰسِرِيْنَ

And it was already revealed to you and to those before you that if you should associate [anything] with Allah, your work would surely become worthless, and you would surely be among the losers.”

(Surah Az-Zumar:65)

The Prophets (peace and blessings of Allah be upon them all) were never polytheists, but they came to put an end to shirk. Here to define the grave crime or enormity of shirk (shirk) 18 prophets are mentioned by name and then in Surah Zumar it has been said by addressing the Prophet , Allah forbid, if our Prophet ﷺ would have committed shirk or subordinated anything or anyone in Allah’s divinity, all his deeds, his prayers, his (Salat ul Tahajud) late night prayers , his fasting, his striving to go out in the way of Allah would have been crumbled and he would have been among the losers in the sight of Allah.

The Mushrik’s nations are destroyed:

قُلْ سِيْرُوْا فِي الْاَرْضِ فَانْظُرُوْا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِيْنَ مِنْ قَبْلُ١ؕ كَانَ اَكْثَرُهُمْ مُّشْرِكِيْنَ

Say, “Travel through the land and observe how was the end of those before. Most of them were associators [of others with Allah].

(Surah Ar-Rum:42)

It is stated in this verse that the punishment of Allah comes upon the nations in which people start associating shirk frequently. The Qur’an and Hadith mention many nations that Allah destroyed them with this punishment. In the verse of Surah An’am, it has been told that for whom is peace and guidance:

اَلَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا وَ لَمْ يَلْبِسُوْۤا اِيْمَانَهُمْ بِظُلْمٍ اُولٰٓىِٕكَ لَهُمُ الْاَمْنُ وَ هُمْ مُّهْتَدُوْنَؒ

They who believe and do not mix their belief with injustice  (Shirk ) – those will have security, and they are [rightly] guided.

(Surah Al-An’am:82)

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ لَمَّا نَزَلَتِ ‏{‏الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُوا إِيمَانَهُمْ بِظُلْمٍ‏}‏ قَالَ أَصْحَابُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَيُّنَا لَمْ يَظْلِمْ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ ‏{‏إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ‏}‏‏.‏

( بخاری، کتاب الایمان ، بَابٌ: ظُلْمٌ دُونَ ظُلْمٍ )

Narrated ‘Abdullah:

When the following Verse was revealed: “It is those who believe and confuse not their belief with wrong (worshipping others besides Allah.)” (Surah Al-An’am:82) , the companions of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) asked, “Who is amongst us who had not done injustice (wrong)?” Allah revealed: “No doubt, joining others in worship with Allah is a great injustice (wrong) indeed.” (Luqman : 13)

(Sahih Bukhari, Book of Belief, Chapter: Dhulm (wrong) of one kind can be greater or lesser than that of another)

That is, faith is the only valid one in there is no trace of shirk. If there is a claim of faith and disbelief and shirk are also taking place, then such faith is not acceptable in the sight of Allah Almighty. It is stated in Quran Majeed that

وَ مَا يُؤْمِنُ اَكْثَرُهُمْ بِاللّٰهِ اِلَّا وَ هُمْ مُّشْرِكُوْنَ

And most of them believe not in Allah except while they associate others with Him.

(Surah Yusuf: 106)

In this verse of the Qur’an, Allah Almighty has made it clear that despite believing in Allah, the majority of people are involved in shirk. That is, the claim that our trust is in Allah Almighty, but they hang amulets to cure diseases, increase in earnings, and bind imam zamin for protection, then tell us what kind of faith this is. When reliance or trust diverted from Allah and to other things, then it has become shirk, so Allah sends punishment on the nations in which shirk is practiced.

It is also forbidden to pray for the forgiveness of a Mushrik.

Allah said:

مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِيِّ وَ الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْۤا اَنْ يَّسْتَغْفِرُوْا۠ لِلْمُشْرِكِيْنَ۠ وَ لَوْ كَانُوْۤا اُولِيْ قُرْبٰى مِنْۢ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ اَنَّهُمْ اَصْحٰبُ الْجَحِيْمِ

It is not for the Prophet and those who have believed to ask forgiveness for the polytheists, even if they were relatives, after it has become clear to them that they are companions of Hellfire.

 (Surah At-Tawbah:113)

In Surah Al-Hashr, on the one hand, Allah Himself taught the believers to pray for those who passed away before them, but on the other hand how unfortunate is the polytheist that Allah forbade Prophet ﷺ and believers not to make prayer of absolution (Pray for their forgiveness after their death) for polytheist. Therefore, the person who dies on shirk (as a polytheist), do not pray for his funeral prayer (salat ul mayat) as it is also prayer for forgiveness and do not supplicate for his forgiveness at any other time.

Marriage to Mushrik is also forbidden:

Allah said:

وَ لَا تَنْكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكٰتِ حَتّٰى يُؤْمِنَّ١ؕ وَ لَاَمَةٌ مُّؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ مُّشْرِكَةٍ وَّ لَوْ اَعْجَبَتْكُمْ١ۚ وَ لَا تُنْكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكِيْنَ حَتّٰى يُؤْمِنُوْا١ؕ وَ لَعَبْدٌ مُّؤْمِنٌ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ مُّشْرِكٍ وَّ لَوْ اَعْجَبَكُمْ١ؕ اُولٰٓىِٕكَ يَدْعُوْنَ اِلَى النَّارِ١ۖۚ وَ اللّٰهُ يَدْعُوْۤا اِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَ الْمَغْفِرَةِ بِاِذْنِهٖ١ۚ وَ يُبَيِّنُ اٰيٰتِهٖ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُوْنَ

And do not marry polytheistic women until they believe. And a believing slave woman is better than a polytheist, even though she might please you. And do not marry polytheistic men [to your women] until they believe. And a believing slave is better than a polytheist, even though he might please you. Those invite [you] to the Fire, but Allah invites to Paradise and to forgiveness, by His permission. And He makes clear His verses to the people that perhaps they may remember.

 (Surah Al-Baqarah:221)

How much Allah hates the polytheist because He commands His believing servants that a believing man should never marry any polytheist woman and says that a believing slave is better than this polytheist woman no matter how much you like that polytheist woman. In the same way, a believing woman should never be married to a polytheistic man. A believing slave is better than that. This command was given because after marrying a polytheist, it is quite likely to adopt the customs and traditions and at the end it ends up in eternal hell. However, in Surah Al-Ma’ida, believing men can marry chaste women of the People of the Book. Remember that this is only a leave, otherwise the ruling is not to marry a polytheist.

At the end of this post we are quoting a verse from Surah Al-Hajj which will give you an idea of ​​the fate of the shirk:

حُنَفَآءَ لِلّٰهِ غَيْرَ مُشْرِكِيْنَ بِهٖ١ؕ وَ مَنْ يُّشْرِكْ بِاللّٰهِ فَكَاَنَّمَا خَرَّ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ فَتَخْطَفُهُ الطَّيْرُ اَوْ تَهْوِيْ بِهِ الرِّيْحُ فِيْ مَكَانٍ سَحِيْقٍ

Inclining [only] to Allah, not associating [anything] with Him. And he who associates with Allah – it is as though he had fallen from the sky and was snatched by the birds or the wind carried him down into a remote place.

(Surah Al-Haj:31)

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The interpretation of Sura e Mominoon, verse no 99-100

بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم

إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ لِلَّهِ، نَحْمَدُهُ وَنَسْتَعِينُهُ، مَنْ يَهْدِهِ اللهُ فَلَا مُضِلَّ لَهُ، وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلَا هَادِيَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، أَمَّا بَعْدُ

حَتّٰۤى اِذَا جَآءَ اَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ رَبِّ ارْجِعُوْنِۙ۰۰۹۹لَعَلِّيْۤ اَعْمَلُ صَالِحًا فِيْمَا تَرَكْتُ كَلَّا١ؕ اِنَّهَا كَلِمَةٌ هُوَ قَآىِٕلُهَا١ؕ وَ مِنْ وَّرَآىِٕهِمْ بَرْزَخٌ اِلٰى يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُوْنَ۰۰۱۰۰

( المومنون: 99۔100)

Until, when death comes to one of them (those who join partners with Allâh), he says: “My Lord! Send me back. So that I may do good in that which I have left behind!” No! It is but a word that he speaks, and behind them is Barzakh (a barrier) until the Day when they will be resurrected.

(Sura e Mominoon 99 –  100)

Until, when death comes to one of them

حَتّٰۤى اِذَا جَآءَ اَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ

How does death come to a man?

Allah Almighty says:

اَللّٰهُ يَتَوَفَّى الْاَنْفُسَ حِيْنَ مَوْتِهَا وَ الَّتِيْ لَمْ تَمُتْ فِيْ مَنَامِهَا١ۚ فَيُمْسِكُ الَّتِيْ قَضٰى عَلَيْهَا الْمَوْتَ وَ يُرْسِلُ الْاُخْرٰۤى اِلٰۤى اَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى١ؕ اِنَّ فِيْ ذٰلِكَ لَاٰيٰتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَّتَفَكَّرُوْنَ۠۰۰۴۲

( سورہ زمر : 46)

It is Allah Who takes away the souls at the time of their death, and those that die not during their sleep. He keeps those (souls) for which He has ordained death and sends the rest for a term appointed. Verily, in this are signs for a people who think deeply.

 (Sura e Zumr, 42)

How is the soul taken away at the time of death?

وَ هُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهٖ وَ يُرْسِلُ عَلَيْكُمْ حَفَظَةً١ؕ حَتّٰۤى اِذَا جَآءَ اَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ تَوَفَّتْهُ رُسُلُنَا وَ هُمْ لَا يُفَرِّطُوْنَ۰۰۶۱ثُمَّ رُدُّوْۤا اِلَى اللّٰهِ مَوْلٰىهُمُ الْحَقِّ١ؕ اَلَا لَهُ الْحُكْمُ١۫ وَ هُوَ اَسْرَعُ الْحٰسِبِيْنَ۰۰۶۲

( سورہ الانعام : 61۔62)

He is Dominant over His slaves, and He sends guardians over you until when death comes upon one of you, Our deputies take his soul in full, and they neglect nothing (from their duties).Then they are returned to Allâh, [True Master the Just Lord)(to reward them)]. Surely, for Him is the judgment and He is the Swiftest in taking account.

(Sura e Aanaam : 61-62)

Muslim :: Book 40 : Hadith 6867

حَدَّثَنِي عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ الْقَوَارِيرِيُّ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ حَدَّثَنَا بُدَيْلٌ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ شَقِيقٍ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ إِذَا خَرَجَتْ رُوحُ الْمُؤْمِنِ تَلَقَّاهَا مَلَکَانِ يُصْعِدَانِهَا قَالَ حَمَّادٌ فَذَکَرَ مِنْ طِيبِ رِيحِهَا وَذَکَرَ الْمِسْکَ قَالَ وَيَقُولُ أَهْلُ السَّمَائِ رُوحٌ طَيِّبَةٌ جَائَتْ مِنْ قِبَلِ الْأَرْضِ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْکِ وَعَلَی جَسَدٍ کُنْتِ تَعْمُرِينَهُ فَيُنْطَلَقُ بِهِ إِلَی رَبِّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ثُمَّ يَقُولُ انْطَلِقُوا بِهِ إِلَی آخِرِ الْأَجَلِ قَالَ وَإِنَّ الْکَافِرَ إِذَا خَرَجَتْ رُوحُهُ قَالَ حَمَّادٌ وَذَکَرَ مِنْ نَتْنِهَا وَذَکَرَ لَعْنًا وَيَقُولُ أَهْلُ السَّمَائِ رُوحٌ خَبِيثَةٌ جَائَتْ مِنْ قِبَلِ الْأَرْضِ قَالَ فَيُقَالُ انْطَلِقُوا بِهِ إِلَی آخِرِ الْأَجَلِ قَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ فَرَدَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ رَيْطَةً کَانَتْ عَلَيْهِ عَلَی أَنْفِهِ هَکَذَا

( مسلم۔ کتاب الجنۃ و صفتہ،باب عرض مقعد المیت)

Abu Huraira reported: When the soul of a believer would go out (of his body) it would be received by two angels who would take it to the sky. Hammad (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) mentioned the sweetness of its odour, (and further said) that the dwellers of the sky say: Here comes the pious soul from the side of the earth Let there be blessings of Allah upon the body in which it resides. And it is carried (by the angels) to its Lord, the Exalted and Glorious. He would say: Take it to its destined end. And if he is a nonbeliever and as it (the soul) leaves the body-Hammad made a mention of its foul smell and of its being cursed-the dwellers of the sky say: There comes a dirty soul from the side of the earth, and it would be said: Take it to its destined end. Abu Huraira reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) put a thin cloth which was with him upon his nose while making a mention (of the foul smell) of the soul of a non-believer.

Found In: Imam Malik’s Muwatta Chapter No: 16, Burials.Hadith no: 50  Narrated: Ibn Shihab

عَنْ کَعْبِ بْنِ مَالِکٍ الْأَنْصَارِيِّ أَنَّهُ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ أَبَاهُ کَعْبَ بْنَ مَالِکٍ کَانَ يُحَدِّثُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ إِنَّمَا نَسَمَةُ الْمُؤْمِنِ طَيْرٌ يَعْلَقُ فِي شَجَرِ الْجَنَّةِ حَتَّی يَرْجِعَهُ اللَّهُ إِلَی جَسَدِهِ يَوْمَ يَبْعَثُهُ

( موطا امام مالک ، کتاب الجنائز، باب:  جامع لاجنائز)


Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Abd ar-Rahman ibn Kab ibn Malik Ansari told him that his father, Kab ibn Malik, used to relate that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “the ruh of the mumin (the soul of a believer)  is a bird that sits in the trees of the Garden until Allah returns it to his body on the day He raises him.”

الَّذِيْنَ تَتَوَفّٰىهُمُ الْمَلٰٓىِٕكَةُ ظَالِمِيْۤ اَنْفُسِهِمْ١۪ فَاَلْقَوُا السَّلَمَ مَا كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ مِنْ سُوْٓءٍ١ؕ بَلٰۤى اِنَّ اللّٰهَ عَلِيْمٌۢ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُوْنَ۰۰۲۸فَادْخُلُوْۤا اَبْوَابَ جَهَنَّمَ خٰلِدِيْنَ فِيْهَا١ؕ فَلَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى الْمُتَكَبِّرِيْنَ۰۰۲۹

( النحل : 28۔29 )

“Those whose lives the angels take while they are doing wrong to themselves (by disbelief and by associating partners in worship with Allah and by committing all kinds of crimes and evil deeds).” Then, they will make (false) submission (saying): “We used not to do any evil.” (The angels will reply): “Yes! Truly, Allah is All-Knower of what you used to do.” “So enter the gates of Hell, to abide therein, (live forever)  and indeed, what an evil abode will be for the arrogant.”

(Al Nahal 28- 29)

الَّذِيْنَ تَتَوَفّٰىهُمُ الْمَلٰٓىِٕكَةُ طَيِّبِيْنَ١ۙ يَقُوْلُوْنَ سَلٰمٌ عَلَيْكُمُ١ۙ ادْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُوْنَ۰۰۳۲

( النحل : 32 )

Those whose lives the angels take while they are in a pious state (i.e. pure from all evil, and worshipping none but Allâh Alone) saying (to them): Salâmun ‘Alaikum (peace be on you) enter you Paradise, because of that (the good) which you used to do (in the world).

 (Al Nahal, 32)

The summary of above stated verses of Quran and the sayings of prophet (PBUH) is that when the time of a person’s death comes, the angels take away his soul and take it to Allah Almighty and Allah orders them to take them away till the day of  judgment. These souls are given hell or paradise according to their deeds, where they live till the day of judgment. These souls will be returned to their bodies on the day of judgment and they will be raised again. When the soul is taken out of the body, it becomes dead and the period of death continues till the day of judgment.

he says: My Lord! Send me back. (99)

لَعَلِّيْۤ اَعْمَلُ صَالِحًا فِيْمَا تَرَكْتُ كَلَّا١ؕ اِنَّهَا كَلِمَةٌ هُوَ قَآىِٕلُهَا١ؕ وَ مِنْ وَّرَآىِٕهِمْ بَرْزَخٌ اِلٰى يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُوْنَ

So that I may do good in that which I have left behind!” No! It is but a word that he speaks, and behind them is Barzakh (a barrier) until the Day when they will be resurrected. (100)

It has already been made clear in the explanation of death that the soul is brought to Allah Almighty after death and it has to be there till the day of judgment. What happens there?

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ حَدَّثَنَا مُعَاوِيَةُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو إِسْحَاقَ عَنْ حُمَيْدٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَنَسَ بْنَ مَالِکٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَا مِنْ عَبْدٍ يَمُوتُ لَهُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ يَسُرُّهُ أَنْ يَرْجِعَ إِلَی الدُّنْيَا وَأَنَّ لَهُ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا فِيهَا إِلَّا الشَّهِيدَ لِمَا يَرَی مِنْ فَضْلِ الشَّهَادَةِ فَإِنَّهُ يَسُرُّهُ أَنْ يَرْجِعَ إِلَی الدُّنْيَا فَيُقْتَلَ مَرَّةً أُخْرَ

( عن انس بن مالک ، بخاری، کتاب الجھاد و السیر ، بَابُ الحُورِ العِينِ، وَصِفَتِهِنَّ يُحَارُ فِيهَا الطَّرْفُ، شَدِيدَةُ سَوَادِ العَيْنِ، شَدِيدَةُ بَيَاضِ العَيْنِ)

 Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet said, “Nobody who dies and finds good from Allah (in the Hereafter) would wish to come back to this world even if he were given the whole world and whatever is in it, except the martyr who, on seeing the superiority of martyrdom, would like to come back to the world and get killed again (in Allah’s Cause).” Narrated Anas: The Prophet said, “A single endeavor (of fighting) in Allah’s Cause in the afternoon or in the forenoon is better than all the world and whatever is in it. A place in Paradise as small as the bow or lash of one of you is better than all the world and whatever is in it. And if a hur from Paradise appeared to the people of the earth, she would fill the space between Heaven and the Earth with light and pleasant scent and her head cover is better than the world and whatever is in it.”

 (Bukhari, Book of battles)

مَالِکٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَا أَحَدٌ يَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّةَ يُحِبُّ أَنْ يَرْجِعَ إِلَی الدُّنْيَا وَلَهُ مَا عَلَی الْأَرْضِ مِنْ شَيْئٍ إِلَّا الشَّهِيدُ يَتَمَنَّی أَنْ يَرْجِعَ إِلَی الدُّنْيَا فَيُقْتَلَ عَشْرَ مَرَّاتٍ لِمَا يَرَی مِنْ الْکَرَامَةِ

( عن انس بن مالک ، بخاری، کتاب الجھاد و السیر ،بَابُ تَمَنِّي المُجَاهِدِ أَنْ يَرْجِعَ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا)

 Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet said, “Nobody who enters paradise would wish to come back to this world even if he were given the whole world and whatever is in it, except the martyr who, on seeing the superiority of martyrdom, would like to come back to the world and get killed again (in Allah’s Cause)

 (Bukhari, Book of battles)

عَنْ مَسْرُوقٍ قَالَ سَأَلْنَا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ عَنْ هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ وَلَا تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَاتًا بَلْ أَحْيَائٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ قَالَ أَمَا إِنَّا قَدْ سَأَلْنَا عَنْ ذَلِکَ فَقَالَ أَرْوَاحُهُمْ فِي جَوْفِ طَيْرٍ خُضْرٍ لَهَا قَنَادِيلُ مُعَلَّقَةٌ بِالْعَرْشِ تَسْرَحُ مِنْ الْجَنَّةِ حَيْثُ شَائَتْ ثُمَّ تَأْوِي إِلَی تِلْکَ الْقَنَادِيلِ فَاطَّلَعَ إِلَيْهِمْ رَبُّهُمْ اطِّلَاعَةً فَقَالَ هَلْ تَشْتَهُونَ شَيْئًا قَالُوا أَيَّ شَيْئٍ نَشْتَهِي وَنَحْنُ نَسْرَحُ مِنْ الْجَنَّةِ حَيْثُ شِئْنَا فَفَعَلَ ذَلِکَ بِهِمْ ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ فَلَمَّا رَأَوْا أَنَّهُمْ لَنْ يُتْرَکُوا مِنْ أَنْ يُسْأَلُوا قَالُوا يَا رَبِّ نُرِيدُ أَنْ تَرُدَّ أَرْوَاحَنَا فِي أَجْسَادِنَا حَتَّی نُقْتَلَ فِي سَبِيلِکَ مَرَّةً أُخْرَی فَلَمَّا رَأَی أَنْ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ حَاجَةٌ تُرِکُوا

( عن مسروق ، إسلم ، کتاب الامارۃ ، باب: باب بيان أن أرواح الشهداء في الجنة، وأنهم أحياء عند ربهم يرزقون) 


It has been narrated on the authority of Masruq who said: We asked ‘Abdullah about the Quranic verse: “Think not of those who are slain in Allah’s way as dead. Nay, they are alive, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord..” (3:169). He said: We asked the meaning of the verse (from the Holy Prophet) who said: The souls, of the martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne of the Almighty. They eat the fruits of Paradise from wherever they like and then nestle in these chandeliers. Once their Lord cast a glance at them and said: Do ye want anything? They said: What more shall we desire? We eat the fruit of Paradise from wherever we like. Their Lord asked them the same question thrice. When they saw that they will continue to be asked and not left (without answering the question). They said: O Lord, we wish that Thou may return our souls to our bodies so that we may be slain in Thy way once again. When He (Allah) saw that they had no need, they were left (to their joy in heaven).

Sahih Muslim – Book 020, Hadith 4651]

سَمِعْتُ جَابِرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ يَقُولُ لَقِيَنِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ لِي يَا جَابِرُ مَا لِي أَرَاکَ مُنْکَسِرًا قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ اسْتُشْهِدَ أَبِي قُتِلَ يَوْمَ أُحُدٍ وَتَرَکَ عِيَالًا وَدَيْنًا قَالَ أَفَلَا أُبَشِّرُکَ بِمَا لَقِيَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَبَاکَ قَالَ قُلْتُ بَلَی يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ مَا کَلَّمَ اللَّهُ أَحَدًا قَطُّ إِلَّا مِنْ وَرَائِ حِجَابٍ وَأَحْيَا أَبَاکَ فَکَلَّمَهُ کِفَاحًا فَقَالَ يَا عَبْدِي تَمَنَّ عَلَيَّ أُعْطِکَ قَالَ يَا رَبِّ تُحْيِينِي فَأُقْتَلَ فِيکَ ثَانِيَةً قَالَ الرَّبُّ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنَّهُ قَدْ سَبَقَ مِنِّي أَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهَا لَا يُرْجَعُونَ

( عن جابر ؓ، ترمذی، ابواب  تفسیر القرآن ، باب:  و من سورۃ آل عمران ، حدیث حسن)


I heard Jabir bin ‘Abdullah say: “When ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr (Haram) was killed on the Day of Uhud, the Messenger of Allah (saw) met me, and said; “O Jabir, shall I not tell you what Allah has said to your father?” Yahya said in his Hadith: “And he said: ‘O Jabir, why do I see you broken-hearted?’ I (Jabir) said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, my father has been martyred and he has left behind dependents and debts.’ He said: ‘Shall I not give you the glad tidings of that with which Allah met your father?’ I said: ‘Yes, O Messenger of Allah.’ He said: ‘Allah never spoke to anyone but from behind a screen, but He spoke to your father directly, and He said: ‘O My slave! Ask something from Me and I shall give it to you.” He said: “O Lord, bring me back to life so that I may be killed in Your cause a second time.” The Lord, Glorified is He, said: “I have already decreed that they will not return to life.” He said: “My Lord, then convey (this news) to those whom I have left behind.” Allah said: “Think not of those dead who are killed in the way of Allah. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.

[3:169] (Hasan)Relevance: 23.246

In the under discussion chapter of the holy Quran, Sura e Mominoon, it is told that the souls of disbelievers request to be sent back after reaching Allah Almighty. It is proved from the above mentioned ahadith (sayings of prophet Muhammad (SAW) that the martyr also requests the same because he has seen the honor of martyrdom and wants to be sent back and martyred again. Unlike, other believers who are in paradise, don’t want to return to this world because they are sure that the blessings of this world are nothing compared to what is in the paradise.

َعَلِّيْۤ اَعْمَلُ صَالِحًا فِيْمَا تَرَكْتُ كَلَّا

 So that I may do good in that which I have left behind!

Allah says:

وَمَنْ اَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرٰي عَلَي اللّٰهِ كَذِبًا اَوْ قَالَ اُوْحِيَ اِلَيَّ وَلَمْ يُوْحَ اِلَيْهِ شَيْءٌ وَّمَنْ قَالَ سَاُنْزِلُ مِثْلَ مَآ اَنْزَلَ اللّٰهُ ۭ وَلَوْ تَرٰٓي اِذِ الظّٰلِمُوْنَ فِيْ غَمَرٰتِ الْمَوْتِ وَالْمَلٰۗىِٕكَةُ بَاسِطُوْٓا اَيْدِيْهِمْ ۚ اَخْرِجُوْٓا اَنْفُسَكُمْ ۭ اَلْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ عَذَابَ الْهُوْنِ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَقُوْلُوْنَ عَلَي اللّٰهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ وَكُنْتُمْ عَنْ اٰيٰتِهٖ تَسْتَكْبِرُوْنَ 93؀ وَلَقَدْ جِئْتُمُوْنَا فُرَادٰي كَمَا خَلَقْنٰكُمْ اَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَّتَرَكْتُمْ مَّا خَوَّلْنٰكُمْ وَرَاۗءَ ظُهُوْرِكُمْ ۚ وَمَا نَرٰي مَعَكُمْ شُفَعَاۗءَكُمُ الَّذِيْنَ زَعَمْتُمْ اَنَّهُمْ فِيْكُمْ شُرَكٰۗؤُا ۭ لَقَدْ تَّقَطَّعَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَضَلَّ عَنْكُمْ مَّا كُنْتُمْ تَزْعُمُوْنَ 94؀ۧ

And who can be more unjust than he who invents a lie against Allah, or says: “A revelation has come to me” whereas no revelation has come to him in anything ; and who says, “I will reveal the like of what Allah has revealed.” And if you could but see when the Zalimun (mushrik  and wrong-doers) are in the agonies of death, while the angels are stretching forth their hands (saying): “Deliver your souls! This day you shall be recompensed with the torment of degradation because of what you used to utter against Allah other than the truth. And you used to reject His Ayat (proofs, evidence, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) with disrespect! “And truly you have come unto Us alone (without wealth, companions or anything else) as We created you the first time. You have left behind you all that which We had bestowed on you. We see not with you your intercessors whom you claimed to be partners with Allah. Now all relations between you and them have been cut off, and all that you used to claim has vanished from you.

 (Sura e Anaam 94)

            It   asserts  that  human  soul  leaves  away  every blessing which Allah has bestowed upon it. The foremost, Allah gifted it with a physical body, and then countless bounties of life; air to breathe, water to quench thirst and food to satisfy the belly. But at the time of departure, every blessing is withdrawn from this soul. In the under study Surah Muminun, it is described that the soul requests Allah to give it back all what it has left away in the mundane world (فِيْمَا تَرَكْتُ), my body, my business, my home etc. (It is discussed before too that they request Allah to give them back their souls into their bodies and send them back to the world so that they can get martyrdom once again).   

Here, Allah says ‘never’; it is a mere wish by him. This is rubbish which he desires. No and never; means it is impossible. It is not in Allah’s laws to send them back. And behind them all is a time when they lives will be ceased.

In the line above, the earlier parts of this Ayah have been elaborated that the soul of the deceased is confiscated by the angels who then take it before Allah and are ordered to prolong it till the last time. Quran and Hadith make it further clear that the soul is then transferred to the Heaven or Hell in the levels they deserve. A momin is awarded with the blessings of heaven and he never desires to return to the world. However, a martyr, to gain the honour of martyrdom once again, wishes to return to the world. Hence, he requests for the return of his soul so that he could go the world again and once again get the honour of being martyr in jihad. Similarly, this Ayah describes that the pagan’s soul also requests to return to the world about which Allah has declared that it is a mere wish by them and behind them all is a barrier when they lives will be ceased.

It is told that the human being died till to date in this world, have a barrier behind their souls, i.e. barzakh. It is a time which they have left behind. It determines that these souls which have reached Allah, if wish to go back to the world, barzakh has left them behind. It defines the irretrievable barrier which does never allow them to fly from that world. 

‘‘Behind all who die is a barrier.’’ Today a belief is found that, the moment one dies, barzakh (a barrier) intervenes between us and the dead body. You will not find anywhere in the whole Quran reading that barzakh intervenes between us and the dead. In Quran and Hadith, there is no mention of barzakh at the time of one’s death. The angels confiscate the soul and bring it to Allah and there is no barzakh in between. There is no mention of barzakh even when they are entered to the heaven or hell. After entrance to the hell, the pagan and disobedient are shown their destiny and there the soul requests Allah to send it back to the place it has left away. And at this point, Allah says it can never happen; now there is a barrier behind them till the doom’s day.

Then this creed is also spread that when the dead one is transferred to his earthly grave, this grave changes into barzakh for him. In the Quran and Hadith, barzakh is not described as a place; rather it is a barrier which does not allow two things meet together. The Quran and Hadith assert that human soul dwells in heaven or hell. All this happens behind the barrier which Allah has declared to establish till doom’s day. The term used for this reference is “Alam-e-barzakh”. It means the world where human soul dwells after it is departed from this world.

After this, you can further see that this self-contrived creed is not practicable in anyway: A) one dies in Karachi and so his burzakh should be in Karachi; B) one dies in America and so his burzakh should be in America; C) one dies drowned in the sea and so his burzakh should be in the sea and similarly one is eaten by the lion and so lion’s belly is burzakh; the lion consumes him and excretes him in his filth, and so a new burzakh is formed. Do the statements of Quran and Hadith support any such creed? Only one burzakh is described for every dead one.

Therefore, according to the creed in the light of the Quran and Hadith, it becomes axiomatic that ‘burzakh’ lies between the soul and what it has left behind, i.e. this world, this body and all the worldly blessings. This burzakh will remain till the doom’s day. When this burzakh ceases to end on the doom’s day, the soul will return to its body. This is discussed in Quran that these rotten bodies will be re-created and they would be brought back alive. The Quran asserts that the dead is dead till the doom’s day and there is no sign of life in them.

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Shab-e-Baraat

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

EBRATING THE UNCELEBRATED NIGHT OF SOULS CEL ( Shub-e-Baraat)

إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ لِلَّهِ، نَحْمَدُهُ وَنَسْتَعِينُهُ، مَنْ يَهْدِهِ اللهُ فَلَا مُضِلَّ لَهُ، وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلَا هَادِيَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، أَمَّا بَعْدُ

I – For those who do not know what exactly happens on this night

Today, many sects and schools of thought, particularly outside the Middle East, celebrate the Night of Acquittal or Night of Forgiveness in the middle of the month of Sha’ban (15th) with great religious enthusiasm; It is commonly known as “”ليلة النصف من شعبان (Laylat al-nisf min Sha’ban) meaning the Night of the Middle from Sha’ban in the Arab world and “شبِ براءت” (Shab-e-Baraat) meaning ‘freeing from responsibility of a wrong doing’ amongst the South Asian Muslims. 

Many people believe that the departed souls of their dear ones return to their graves and homes that night.  Some of them believe that whatever is going to happen to them in the next one year is written in this night.

It is common almost everywhere:

  • To see hundreds of people visiting graveyards at night.
  • Graves of their relatives are decorated with candles, flower petals and leaves and with burning of incense (South Asians call it agarbatti). 
  • Other than the graveyards, people decorate the tombs, mosques and other building with fancy lightings;
  • People spend the night worshipping and praying declared as sunnah by their sectarian ulema.
  • People gather on a bridge throwing chits with their prayers attaching some bait for the fish; they believe that their ‘escapee Imam’ will receive and fulfill their wishes.
  • Fire crackers and fireworks are also specialty of this night.
  • They also believe that great pardon is made by Allah Ta’ala acquitting them of their sins.
  • Baseless wazeefas (dhikr in Arabic) are promoted for this night like wazeefa on a ten-rupee note in this night will bring them millions.

The Christians do similar rituals in their graveyards on 2 November each year, calling it ‘All Souls Day’.  They also believe that the souls of their dear ones return to their graves that day.

But surprisingly this so-called holy festival of Islam is neither mentioned in the Quran nor the sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) reaching us through authenticated prophetic narrations. Let us analyze what justifications are given to celebrate Shab-e-Baraat.

            Let’s start with the as basic as this name ‘Shab-e-Baraat’ used almost everywhere by the subcontinental Muslims.  ‘Shab’ is not an Arabic word but a Persian word meaning ‘night’.  ‘Baraat’ is an Arabic word meaning ‘acquittal’ thus combining Persian with Arabic to give a religious touch.   But there is no parallel word for ‘Shab-e-Baraat’ used in Quran and Sunnah.  That is, ‘Shab-e-Baraat’ has nothing to do with Islam which was revealed in Arabic, but it is the invention of the Persians or Persian-loving Indian Muslims.

II – Justification offered in favour of Shab-e-Baraat from the Quran

First Justification.

Some claim that Sura Dukhan Ayaat 3-4 mention about this night.

اِنَّاۤ اَنْزَلْنٰهُ فِيْ لَيْلَةٍ مُّبٰرَكَةٍ اِنَّا كُنَّا مُنْذِرِيْنَ۰۰۳فِيْهَا يُفْرَقُ كُلُّ اَمْرٍ حَكِيْمٍۙ۰۰۴

Indeed, We sent it (the Quran) down during a blessed night. Indeed, We were to warn [through it]. On that night, is made distinct every affair of wisdom.

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنْزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ…

The month of Ramadhan is the one in which Quran was revealed …

  • Hence it is unanimously acknowledged that the distinction of first revelation is associated with the month of Ramadhan NOT Sha’ban.
  • Then many authentic ahadeeth further restrict it to the last ten nights of the Ramadhan NOT Sha’ban. 
  • It is also shocking contradiction that despite such a clear verdict, Laylat-ul-Qadr has also been changed from one night to two nights that too falling outside of Ramadhan by Deobandi Shaikh Zakariya in his book ‘Fadhail-e-Aa’mal’ Chapter ‘Fadhail-e-Ramadhan’ the standard syllabus of Tablighi Jamat.
  • The Prophet or his Companions have not related 15th night with the revelation of the Quran.
  • Though it is narrated from Ikrimah (), a successor to the Companions, that he considers (not what the Prophet said) the night in which every affair is widely decided to be the middle-night of Sha’ban; Then he contradicts himself in another narration that the night refers to Laylat al-Qadr. (Zaad-ul-Maseer fi ilm al tafseer, Chapter Tafseer Surah Al-Dukhan, by Ibn al-Jawzi d. 597 hijri).
  • Qadhi Abu Bakr ibn ‘Arabi (d. 543 hijri) asserted: ‘The majority of scholars hold that it refers to Laylat ul-Qadr. Some have stated that it refers to the night of mid-Sha’ban; however, this [latter] view is futile.’ Then he categorizes the one who claims falsely that this is Laylat ul Qadr as ‘the one who has told a great lie on Allah’. (Ahkam al-Quran, Chapter Tafseer Surah Al-Dukhan, by Qadi Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah Ibn al-‘Arabi Al-Andulusi)
  • Darul Ulum Deoband has published a booklet by Shaikh Abdul Hafiz Abdul Haqq Al-Makki, available of their website, in favour of Shab-e-Baraat (15th Sha’ban) but not a single ayat is quoted to support it. It appears that the writer knew well the tafseer of abovementioned ayaat from Al-Dukhan or he had read the assertion of Ibn al-‘Arabi about telling a great lie on Allah if someone calls Shab-e-Barat as Laylatul Mubarakah.
  • Ironically, religious scholars distort the Quranic verses and shift their places to suit their ulterior motives which was the habit of Bani Israel, يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ عَنْ مَوَاضِعِهِ  ’those who distort words from their [proper] usages’ (Surah Al-Nisa Ayat 46).  

Hence there is no ayat of the Quran which mentions this night of 15th Sha’ban nor any ritual to be practised on this night or at any other time of the day.  For those who still prefer to use this ayat as an argument, Allah Ta’ala says:

ؕ قُلْ اَتُنَبِّـُٔوْنَ۠ اللّٰهَ بِمَا لَا يَعْلَمُ فِي السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ لَا فِي الْاَرْضِ

 … ‘Say, “Do you inform Allah of something He does not know in the heavens or on the earth? …”

  (Surah Younus Ayat 18)    

  1. Second Justification.  Another misconception spread by the sectarian ulema about this ‘Night of Acquittal’ is that the souls of those who die come to this world and visit their graves and homes that night.
  2. Analysis. This belief is neither proved by the Quran and authentic ahadeeth rather is against the belief declared by Allah Ta’ala who says:

حَتّٰۤى اِذَا جَآءَ اَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ رَبِّ ارْجِعُوْنِ

Until, when death comes to one of them (those who join partners with Allah), he says: “My Lord! Send me back,

لَعَلِّيْۤ اَعْمَلُ صَالِحًا فِيْمَا تَرَكْتُ كَلَّا١ؕ اِنَّهَا كَلِمَةٌ هُوَ قَآىِٕلُهَا١ؕ وَ مِنْ وَّرَآىِٕهِمْ بَرْزَخٌ اِلٰى يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُوْنَ

“So that I may do good in that which I have left behind!” No! It is but a word that he speaks, and behind them is Barzakh (a barrier) until the Day when they will be resurrected.

 …فَيُمْسِكُ الَّتِي قَضَىٰ عَلَيْهَا الْمَوْتَ…

…Then He keeps those for which He has decreed death…

(Sura Al-Zumar Ayat 42)

أَلَمْ يَرَوْا كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُمْ مِنَ الْقُرُونِ أَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ

Do they not see how many of the generations We have destroyed before them? Verily, they will not return to them.

(Surah Yaseen Ayat 31)

All of these ayaat and others clearly establish that the dead WILL NOT return to this world.  This belief of souls returning to earth in any form is against the Quranic Verdict. Hence no soul is visiting their relatives present on their graves on Shab-e-Baraat or any other day or night.

III – Justification offered in favour of Shab-e-Baraat from the ahadeeth

  1. The believers of Shab-e-Baraat also resort to a few ahadeeth to prove this night, which, if researched, would show that all of them either weak or fabricated. Those narrations are analyzed in the following paragraphs.
  2. Third Justification. Mother of the Believers A’isha (رضی اللہ عنہا) said: Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said:

“Sha’ban is my month and Ramadan is the month of Allah.” (Musnad Al-Firdous)

  1. Analysis. Hafiz Sakhawi attributed it to Musnad al-Firdaus. This narration is judged to be fabricated; its chain of narration is very weak (dha’if jiddan) due to Hasan ibn Yahya al-Khashni. Sheikh Al-Albani recorded it in Al-Silsala Al-Dha’eefah (The Chain of the Weak Narrations) Volume 8 Page 222 Hadith 3746.
  2. Fourth Justification. Following hadith is quoted for special significance of this night:

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ فَقَدْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَيْلَةً فَخَرَجْتُ فَإِذَا هُوَ بِالْبَقِيعِ فَقَالَ أَكُنْتِ تَخَافِينَ أَنْ يَحِيفَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكِ وَرَسُولُهُ ” . قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنِّي ظَنَنْتُ أَنَّكَ أَتَيْتَ بَعْضَ نِسَائِكَ . فَقَالَ :إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَنْزِلُ لَيْلَةَ النِّصْفِ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا فَيَغْفِرُ لأَكْثَرَ مِنْ عَدَدِ شَعْرِ غَنَمِ كَلْب

Aisha (رضی اللہ عنہ) says that one night she did not find the Prophet (ﷺ) in bed. … …. (Allah) forgives as many people as the hairs of the goats of Banu Kalb.

  1. Analysis. It is mentioned in Quran:

اِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُوْرِ عِنْدَ اللّٰهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا فِيْ كِتٰبِ اللّٰهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الْاَرْضَ

Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; …

 (Surah Al-Tauba Ayat 36)

  1. When Allah created heaven and the earth and divided the year, all the months belong to Him as he created them long before Adam ( علیہ السلام ) was created. Nobody shares this ownership with Allah. Moreover, if the Prophet () had given a specialty attached with him like prayer for himself, celebrations for him, then it would have been deduced that month of Sha’ban has some special relevance with the Prophet () but that is not the case. Dedicating a month to someone other than Allah is clearly shirk (association with Him).
  2. Secondly Imam Tirmidhi, himself, called it weak (dha’if) and quoted from Imam Bukhari as weak. (Jam’ at- Tirmizi 739 , Book 8 , Hadith 58,Vol 2 , Book 3, Hadith 739) Hajjaj ibn Arta narrated this narration from Yahya ibn Abi Katheer but his listening from him is not proven. This narration is broken in two places. Shaykh al-Albani also declared it weak.
  3. Fifth Justification.  Following hadith is quoted for special significance of this night:

عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى الأَشْعَرِيِّ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ قَالَ “ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَيَطَّلِعُ فِي لَيْلَةِ النِّصْفِ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ فَيَغْفِرُ لِجَمِيعِ خَلْقِهِ إِلاَّ لِمُشْرِكٍ أَوْ مُشَاحِنٍ

“Allah looks down on the night of the middle of Sha’ban and forgives all His creation, apart from the mushriks (those who associate anyone with Allah in any sense) and a Muslim who carries something against his Muslim brother in his heart).” Another chain from Abu Musa, from the Prophet (ﷺ) with similar wording.

 (Sunan Ibn Majah, Book of establishing salat and sunnah, Chapter of what was narrated about the middle night of Sha’ban)

  • Analysis. This narration is very weak. In it, Waleed bin Muslim, is a mudallis (one who knowingly hides defect in his narration).  Then another narrator Ibn Lahiyah is weak, while Zahak bin Ayman is unknown. In the second chain of narrators, besides Ibn Lahiyah, both Zubair ibn Saleem and Abdul Rahman ibn Azrab are unknown.
  • Sixth Justification. Another narration is often quoted in favour of this night:

When the fifteenth night of Sha’ban comes, Allah Ta’ala looks at His creatures and forgives the believers. He gives respite to the disbelievers and leaves the haters behind because of their hatred.  (Fadhail-e-Awqaat No. 23)

  • Analysis.  This narration is weak because its main narrator, Ahus ibn Hakim, is weak according to the vast majority of the scholars of hadith. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani describes this narrator in his book al-Taqreeb al-Tahdhib 290, as having ‘weak memorization’. Therefore, the argument from this tradition is not ‘jaiz’ (religiously permitted).
  • Seventh Justification.   Another hadith is quoted to justify celebration of this night:

عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم “ إِذَا كَانَتْ لَيْلَةُ النِّصْفِ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ فَقُومُوا لَيْلَهَا وَصُومُوا يَوْمَهَا . فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَنْزِلُ فِيهَا لِغُرُوبِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَى سَمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا فَيَقُولُ أَلاَ مِنْ مُسْتَغْفِرٍ فَأَغْفِرَ لَهُ أَلاَ مُسْتَرْزِقٌ فَأَرْزُقَهُ أَلاَ مُبْتَلًى فَأُعَافِيَهُ أَلاَ كَذَا أَلاَ كَذَا حَتَّى يَطْلُعَ الْفَجْرُ

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: ‘When it is the night of the middle of Sha’ban, spend its night in prayer and observe a fast on that day. For Allah descends at sunset on that night to the lowest heaven and says: “Is there no one who will ask Me for forgiveness, that I may forgive him? Is there no one who will ask Me for provision, that I may provide for him? Is there no one who is afflicted by trouble, that I may relieve him?” And so on, until dawn comes.’

 (Sunan Ibn Majah, Book of establishing salat and sunnah, Chapter of what was narrated about the middle night of Sha’ban)

  • Analysis.  In this narration, Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Sabra is declared as a ‘liar’.See Sunun Ibn e Majjah ,Book 2, Mohammed Fawad Abdul Baqi  This whole hadith is categorized as ‘fabricated’ and cannot be considered an argument at all. ( Ahmed Bin Humble , Sunun Ibn e Majjah ,Book 2 ( Albani  called it ToTally Zaeef ).Ref : Al Musnud Almuzuei un e jame lil kutub Al ushrata.
  • Eighth Justification. Yet another hadith:

“On the night of mid-Sha’ban, the names of those born and those who die throughout the year are noted and the deeds of the people are presented before Allah and on that night their sustenance also comes down.” 

 (Fadhail-e-Awqaat No. 26)

Analysis.  This narration is very weak because it has a very weak narrator, Nadr ibn Katheer, and it is not permissible to present it as an argument from this narration.

  • Ninth Justification. Deobandi justification appearing in the booklet by Shaikh Abdul Hafiz Al-Makki begins with many ahadeeth highlighting virtues of the month of Sha’ban at the end of which he himself writes the following:

“[Consequently,] without a doubt these hadiths and those similar to them include in their generality (‘umum) the night of the 15th of Sha’ban and its day.”

  • Analysis. Like the above quoted ahadeeth for the whole month, he has also used three fasts of every month commonly called Ayyam-ul-Beidh (days of whiteness).  The nights of 13th, 14th and 15th are full moon-lit nights are given the simile of whiteness.  Even this is applicable to all the months round the year. The authenticity of all these ahadeeth is not analysed as these, being generally applicable to all the months, therefore, these are not the arguments in favour of this particular night.
  • Except for weak hadith from Sunan Ibn Majah, analysed above, not one hadith occurs in Sihah Sitta, Six canonical hadith books. The hadith from Sunan Al-Tirmidhi quoted above is declared by Tirmizi himself as weak as written there for record.  Therefore, Imam Bokhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi, Nasai have not brought a SINGLE hadith in favour of Sha-e-Baraat. Similarly, the other ahadeeth in support of this night in this booklet are quoted as ‘athar’ (narrations related to Sahaba) an innovated term which was not used in this sense by the great scholars of hadith like the names mentioned above.  In any case, none of the quoted these ‘athar’ are from standard books of hadith.  These quotations are from al-Targhib wa ’l-Tarhib by Hafiz Al-Mundhari, Lata’if al-Ma’arif  by Hafiz Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Majma’ ‘l-Zawa’id by Nur al-Din al-Haythami, Husn al-Bayan by Abdullah al-Ghumari, Shu‘b al-Iman by Al-Bayhiqi,
  • The Deobandi scholar has acknowledged in the same booklet and quotes:

‘At the end of it is mentioned: “Al-Tirmidhi said: I heard Muhammad i.e. al-Bukhari considering this hadith weak (dha‘if).”

  • But then he goes on to defend acceptance of this weak hadith, by quoting verdict by Mulla Ali Al-Qari:

“However, weak hadith can be practiced upon in virtues (fadhail) according to ‘ijma ul ulema’ …” [ijma ul ulema is the unanimous agreement of the scholars]

  • This makes ijma ul ulema as an extra source of our religion besides those defined by Allah Ta’ala and His Messenger (ﷺ). Thus, these ulema have justified many innovations including the Night of Acquittal / Shab-e-Baraat / “”ليلة النصف من شعبان (the Night of the Middle of Sha’ban) in the real Islam.
  • IMPORTANTLY there is not a single narrationabout these rituals or deeds actually being performed by the Prophet (ﷺ), or by Ummahat ul Momineen (Mothers of the Believers) that is the respectable lady wives of the Prophet (ﷺ) or by the Sahaba (the Companions of the Prophet (ﷺ) or even by the respectable Followers of the Companions or even their Followers. None, whatsoever. How is it possible that the night so fervently celebrated today on religious grounds has not an iota of resemblance with the practices of the best generations whom we are supposed to follow. 

  IV – So it concludes …

It has been proven beyond doubt that the night, which is considered as a holy night of Islam today in the name of ليلة النصف من شعبان (Laylat al-nisf min Sha’ban) meaning the Night of the Middle from Sha’ban in the Arab world and “شبِ براءت” (Shab-e-Baraat) in South Asia, is not proven by the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet () or the sunnah of the Sahaba ().

Also considering and promoting 15th night as ‘Laylatul Mubarakah’ which is actually the ‘Laylatul Qadr’ as mentioned in Quran and many authentic ahadeeth, is a great lie against Allah Himself, His Book and His Messenger ().

May Allah Ta’ala guide to the real Islam all those who are sincere in Your religion

 and save us from going astray after the guidance

 and grant us all the courage and strength to stay away from all innovations in our beloved religion, Islam.

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Where are the martyrs (shaheed) alive after their death?

بسم اللہ الرحمٰن الرحیم

إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ لِلَّهِ، نَحْمَدُهُ وَنَسْتَعِينُهُ، مَنْ يَهْدِهِ اللهُ فَلَا مُضِلَّ لَهُ، وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلَا هَادِيَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، أَمَّا بَعْدُ

The sectarian ulema have misled the Ummah that the deceased person lying in his grave is alive, able to listen and even see. To prove their fabrications, the ulema have tried to show that the Prophets including our Prophet (ﷺ) are alive in their own graves.  Then the same was extended to the martyrs because it is forbidden to call them dead; they are alive.  And when the martyrs are alive, the status of the prophets is much higher. How can they be dead in their graves? Therefore, we seek guidance on this subject from the Qur’an and Hadith.

I – What does Quran states about the shaheeds?

Allah Ta’ala says:

وَ لَا تَقُوْلُوْا لِمَنْ يُّقْتَلُ فِيْ سَبِيْلِ اللّٰهِ اَمْوَاتٌ١ؕ بَلْ اَحْيَآءٌ وَّ لٰكِنْ لَّا تَشْعُرُوْنَ

  ( سورة البقرة :154)

And do not say about those who are killed in the way of Allah, “They are dead.” Rather, they are alive, but you perceive [it] not.

In this ayat which was revealed after the Battle of Badr, Allah Ta’ala ordered not to call those who are killed in Allah’s cause as dead. On the one hand, Allah Ta’ala Himself is saying, “Those who are killed in the way of Allah,” that is, those who had actually died. But do not say that they are dead, but that they are alive. At the same time, it was stated that human beings cannot perceive that life of the martyrs. 

Haritha (رضی اللہ عنہ) was martyred on the occasion of the Battle of Badr. Her mother came to the Prophet (ﷺ).  Following hadith narrates the incident:

عَنْ حُمَيْدٍ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ أَنَسًا، يَقُولُ: أُصِيبَ حَارِثَةُ يَوْمَ بَدْرٍ وَهُوَ غُلاَمٌ، فَجَاءَتْ أُمُّهُ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَتْ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، قَدْ عَرَفْتَ مَنْزِلَةَ حَارِثَةَ مِنِّي، فَإِنْ يَكُ فِي الجَنَّةِ أَصْبِرْ وَأَحْتَسِبْ، وَإِنْ تَكُنِ الأُخْرَى تَرَى مَا أَصْنَعُ؟ فَقَالَ: «وَيْحَكِ، أَوَهَبِلْتِ، أَوَجَنَّةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ هِيَ؟ إِنَّهَا جِنَانٌ كَثِيرَةٌ، وَإِنَّهُ لَفِي جَنَّةِ الفِرْدَوْسِ»

(بخاری، کتاب المغازی، باب فضل من شھداء بدر، عن انس ؓ)

Haritha was martyred on the day (of the battle) of Badr, and he was a young boy then. His mother came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and said, “O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! You know how dear Haritha is to me. If he is in Paradise, I shall remain patient, and hope for reward from Allah, but if it is not so, then you shall see what I do?” He said, “May Allah be merciful to you! Have you lost your senses? Do you think there is only one Paradise? There are many Paradises and your son is in the (most superior) Paradise of Al- Firdaus.”

It is thus learned that the martyrs are alive but in Paradise. Then on the occasion of the Battle of Uhud a large number of companions were martyred. When the Prophet (ﷺ) was asked about this, the following ayaat were revealed:

وَ لَا تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِيْنَ قُتِلُوْا فِيْ سَبِيْلِ اللّٰهِ اَمْوَاتًا١ؕ بَلْ اَحْيَآءٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُوْنَۙ۰۰۱۶۹

فَرِحِيْنَ بِمَاۤ اٰتٰىهُمُ اللّٰهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهٖ١ۙ وَ يَسْتَبْشِرُوْنَ۠ بِالَّذِيْنَ لَمْ يَلْحَقُوْا بِهِمْ مِّنْ خَلْفِهِمْ١ۙ اَلَّا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ لَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُوْنَۘ۰۰۱۷۰

(سورہ آل عمران : آیت 169 تا 171)


And never think of those who have been killed in Allah’s cause as dead. Rather, they are alive with their Lord, receiving provision. Rejoicing in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounty, and they receive good news about those [to be martyred] after them who have not yet joined them – that there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve. They receive good news of favor from Allah and bounty and [of the fact] that Allah does not allow the reward of believers to be wasted.

In the same Surah, it has been revealed before these ayaat:

اَلَّذِيْنَ قَالُوْا لِاِخْوَانِهِمْ وَ قَعَدُوْا لَوْ اَطَاعُوْنَا مَا قُتِلُوْا١ؕ قُلْ فَادْرَءُوْا عَنْ اَنْفُسِكُمُ الْمَوْتَ اِنْ كُنْتُمْ صٰدِقِيْنَ۰۰۱۶۸

( آل عمران : 168 )

 Those who said about their brothers while sitting [at home], “If they had obeyed us, they would not have been killed.” Say, “Then prevent death from yourselves, if you should be truthful.”

That is, their disbelieving and mushrikeen relatives, who thought that if they had obeyed them to stay at home, they would not have been killed today and lost their lives. It was said to them, “If you are truthful, then avert your death.”  This way it is proved that these martyrs had actually died, they were considered dead and they were buried on the same basis. Like the Battle of Badr, again Allah’s command came: ‘Do not think that those who were killed in the way of Allah are dead. Rather, they are alive with their Lord and they are being provided for’.  Moreover, they are rejoicing about the great reward they have received from their Lord for the martyrdom. And they have come to know that Allah Ta’ala does not waste the reward of the believers.

II – What does ahadith state about the shaheeds?

It, thus, became clear from Quranic ayaat that those, who were sad after the death of their loved ones, have been told that those who died after being martyred in this battle are alive with Allah, where they have been rewarded with a great reward. The Prophet (ﷺ) explains where these martyrs are alive:

طَلْحَةَ بْنَ خِرَاشٍ قَال سَمِعْتُ جَابِرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ يَقُولُ لَقِيَنِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ لِي يَا جَابِرُ مَا لِي أَرَاکَ مُنْکَسِرًا قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ اسْتُشْهِدَ أَبِي قُتِلَ يَوْمَ أُحُدٍ وَتَرَکَ عِيَالًا وَدَيْنًا قَالَ أَفَلَا أُبَشِّرُکَ بِمَا لَقِيَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَبَاکَ قَالَ قُلْتُ بَلَی يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ مَا کَلَّمَ اللَّهُ أَحَدًا قَطُّ إِلَّا مِنْ وَرَائِ حِجَابٍ وَأَحْيَا أَبَاکَ فَکَلَّمَهُ کِفَاحًا فَقَالَ يَا عَبْدِي تَمَنَّ عَلَيَّ أُعْطِکَ قَالَ يَا رَبِّ تُحْيِينِي فَأُقْتَلَ فِيکَ ثَانِيَةً قَالَ الرَّبُّ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنَّهُ قَدْ سَبَقَ مِنِّي أَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهَا لَا يُرْجَعُونَ

( عن جابر ؓ ، ترمذی،  ابواب تفسیر القرآن ، باب:  ومن سورۃ آل عمران )

 Talhah bin Khirash said: ‘I heard Jabir bin Abdullah saying: “Allah’s Messengerﷺ met me and said to me: ‘O Jabir! Why do I see you upset?’ I said: ‘O Allah’s Messengerﷺ! My father was martyred (on the Day of Uhud) leaving my family and debt behind. ” Heﷺ said: ‘Shall I give you news of what your father met Allah with?'” He said: “of course Allah’s Messengerﷺ!” He said: ‘Allah does not speak to anyone except from behind a veil, but He brought your father to speak to Him directly. He said: “[O My slave!] Do you wish that I give you anything?” He said: ‘O Lord! Give me life so that I may fight for You a second time.’ So, the Lord عَزَّ وَجَلَّ said: ‘It has been decreed by Me that they shall not return (21:95).’ He said: “So this Ayat was revealed: Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah (3:169).”

In another hadith:

عَنْ مَسْرُوقٍ قَالَ سَأَلْنَا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ عَنْ هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ وَلَا تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَاتًا بَلْ أَحْيَائٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ قَالَ أَمَا إِنَّا قَدْ سَأَلْنَا عَنْ ذَلِکَ فَقَالَ أَرْوَاحُهُمْ فِي جَوْفِ طَيْرٍ خُضْرٍ لَهَا قَنَادِيلُ مُعَلَّقَةٌ بِالْعَرْشِ تَسْرَحُ مِنْ الْجَنَّةِ حَيْثُ شَائَتْ ثُمَّ تَأْوِي إِلَی تِلْکَ الْقَنَادِيلِ فَاطَّلَعَ إِلَيْهِمْ رَبُّهُمْ اطِّلَاعَةً فَقَالَ هَلْ تَشْتَهُونَ شَيْئًا قَالُوا أَيَّ شَيْئٍ نَشْتَهِي وَنَحْنُ نَسْرَحُ مِنْ الْجَنَّةِ حَيْثُ شِئْنَا فَفَعَلَ ذَلِکَ بِهِمْ ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ فَلَمَّا رَأَوْا أَنَّهُمْ لَنْ يُتْرَکُوا مِنْ أَنْ يُسْأَلُوا قَالُوا يَا رَبِّ نُرِيدُ أَنْ تَرُدَّ أَرْوَاحَنَا فِي أَجْسَادِنَا حَتَّی نُقْتَلَ فِي سَبِيلِکَ مَرَّةً أُخْرَی فَلَمَّا رَأَی أَنْ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ حَاجَةٌ تُرِکُوا

( عن عبد اللہ بن مسعود ؓ ، مسلم ، کتاب الامارۃ ، باب بيان أن أرواح الشهداء في الجنة، وأنهم أحياء عند ربهم يرزقون)

On the authority of Masrooq who said, we asked Abdullah about the Quranic ayat:” Think not of those who are slain in Allah’s way as dead. Nay, they are alive, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord…” (Surah Aali Imran. 169). He said: We asked the meaning of the ayat (from the Prophet) who said: ‘The souls of the martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne (of Allah). They eat the fruits of Paradise from wherever they like and then nestle in these chandeliers. Once their Lord cast a glance at them and said: Do ye want anything? They said: What more shall we desire? We eat the fruit of Paradise from wherever we like. Their Lord asked them the same question thrice. When they saw that they will continue to be asked and not left (without answering the question). they said: O Lord, we wish that You may return our souls to our bodies so that we may be slain in Your way once again. When He (Allah) saw that they had no need, they were left (to their joy in heaven).

It, thus, became evident that after the death of the martyrs, their souls were not found in their worldly bodies but in the flying green bodies flying in Paradise. Allah converses with them but when they desire that their souls be returned again to the earthy bodies to get martyrdom again, He stops talking further because once someone dies, he is never to return back to the earth.

Further study the hadith that after death everyone is in the same world or in another. The Prophet (ﷺ) said:

مَا مِنْ عَبْدٍ یَمُوْتُ لَہٗ عِنْدَاﷲِ خَیْرٌ یَّسُرُّہٗ اَنْ یَرْجِعَ اِلَی الدُّنْیَا وَمَا فِیْھَا اِلَّا الشَّھِیْدَ لِمَا یَرٰی مِنْ فَضْلِ الشَّھَادَۃِ فَاِنَّہٗ یَسُرُّہٗ اَنْ یَّرْجِعُ اِلَی الدُّنْیَا فَیُقْتَلُ مَرَّۃً اُخْرٰی

( عن انس بن مالک ، بخاری، کتاب الجھاد و السیر ، بَابُ الحُورِ العِينِ، وَصِفَتِهِنَّ يُحَارُ فِيهَا الطَّرْفُ، شَدِيدَةُ سَوَادِ العَيْنِ، شَدِيدَةُ بَيَاضِ العَيْنِ)

 The Prophetﷺ said, “Nobody who dies and finds good from Allah would wish to come back to this world even if he were given the whole world and whatever is in it, except the martyr who, on seeing the superiority of martyrdom, would like to come back to the world and get killed again (in Allah’s Cause).”

It became clear that the one dies does not remain in this world. To believe that the martyrs are alive in their worldly graves is a denial of Quran and Hadith.

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‘Ithal-e-Thawab’ “ایصالِ ثواب”

بسم اللہ الرحمٰن الرحیم

Transferring reward of Good Deeds to the dead

‘Ithal-e-Thawab’ “ایصالِ ثواب”

in the light of Qur’an and Hadith

إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ لِلَّهِ، نَhحْمَدُهُ وَنَسْتَعِينُهُ، مَنْ يَهْدِهِ اللهُ فَلَا مُضِلَّ لَهُ، وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلَا هَادِيَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، أَمَّا بَعْدُ

I – What is ‘Ithal-e-Thawab’

It is rampant in our society that whenever a person dies, his family and friends assemble at his residence. They sit down on white sheets of cloth and each one reads one part (juz or para) so that they can complete the reading of the whole Quran in one sitting.  Then the moulvi (shaikh by from nearby masjid) makes a collective dua to Allah that the reward of finishing the reading of Quran be transferred to the dear departed.  It is also a standard practice of ‘fatiha’ by reciting Surah Al-Fatihah, Surah Al-Ikhlas, etc. three times as a prayer for forgiveness at the residence or the grave.

It simply means that a Muslim, doing good deeds, can transfer the rewards of these deeds to a dead person. 

Let us analyse this belief in the light of Quran and hadith but first we find out for what a dead person get the reward.

II – Reward transferred to a dead person!

Allah Ta’ala declares in the Quran:

اَلَّا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِّزْرَ اُخْرٰىۙ۰۰۳۸وَ اَنْ لَّيْسَ لِلْاِنْسَانِ اِلَّا مَا سَعٰى ۙ۰۰۳۹وَ اَنَّ سَعْيَهٗ سَوْفَ يُرٰى۪۰۰۴۰ثُمَّ يُجْزٰىهُ الْجَزَآءَ الْاَوْفٰى ۙ۰۰۴۱

(النجم:38 تا 41)

“That no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another.And that there is not for man except that [good] for which he strives.And that his effort is going to be seen.”

Then he will be recompensed for it with the fullest recompense.

In these verses, first it is made amply clear that as a rule the deeds of one person will not be repaid to another.  Then it was explained that man gets only what he strives for. And he will be rewarded according to the diligence and pursuit of his deeds.  Lord of the Universe says:

وَ بَشِّرِ الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ اَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنّٰتٍ تَجْرِيْ مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْاَنْهٰرُ

  (البقرة :25)

“And give good tidings to those who believe and do righteous deeds that they will have gardens [in Paradise] beneath which rivers flow…”

It is further clarified in Surah Al-A’raf that when the believers with pure faith will be admitted to Paradise, then:

وَ نُوْدُوْۤا اَنْ تِلْكُمُ الْجَنَّةُ اُوْرِثْتُمُوْهَا بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُوْنَ

(الاعراف:43)

“And they will be called, “This is the Paradise, which you have been made to inherit for what you used to do.”

These verses further make it clear that a person will enter Paradise because of the deeds which he himself has done after believing.  Certainly, not because of the deeds done by others.  In any case, entering the Paradise will be due to the mercy of Allah Ta’ala, and that too, mercy is conditional for him who believed and did good deeds.

Today, if someone dies in someone’s house, Quran Khwani (the reading of the whole Quran in one sitting) is arranged, the names of Allah are recited on the rosaries, chana (yellow gram), seeds and date stones for the award of its thawab to the deceased. Then on the third day, soyem then on the tenth day, ‘daswan’ and on the fortieth day, ‘chaleeswan’ are arranged.

Those who call themselves Muslims! Just think, who has told you this practice? Is there such an order, in favour of what you have adopted, in any of the thousands of verses of the Holy Qur’an? Is there any such practice in the vast collection of hadiths? Did not Prophet’s wife, sons, grandson and other companions die in his life time?  Were there no reciters of the Qur’an at the time of the Prophet’s death to do the Qur’an khwani?  Which of the Tabei’ (follower of the Sahaba) had finished the Qur’an on the death of the Companions? Likewise how many Qur’ans did Tabe’ Tabei’n (followers of the followers of the Sahaba) recite on the death of the tabiens?

After all, how a deed which does not exist in the Qur’an and Hadith and nor in the lives of the Companions and, later, nor in the periods of Tabien and Tabe Tabein, became an essential ritual and belief in Islam?

Just think for a second, whose followership is it?  Do we call him a Muslim who invents a practice other than the one prescribed by Allah and His Messenger and acts according to it and persists over it?

III – Meaning and Explanatin of the term ‘ithal-e-Thawab’

Let alone the creed  of “Ithal-e-Thawab” which has been adopted widely in this ummah, this term itself and its practice have not been mentioned anywhere in the Qur’an and Hadith.

‘Ithal’ or ‘isaal’ means “sending” or “transfer” and “thawab” means “reward of a good deed” which will be awarded by Allah Ta’ala. The term means ‘transferring reward (of specific ritual) done by any living person to the account of a dead person.’  This is similar to the balance transfer by a mobile these days.

IV – What does Quran and Haidth dictate

In the Qur’anic ayaat of Sura Al-Najm written above, it has become clear that only the doer of a deed is rewarded and no one else.  That is, a dead person cannot, under any circumstances, claim reward for somebody else’s good deeds.

In these ayaat, it is explained in very simple terms that the intention of the doer will be judged and then he will be fully rewarded.  It is as if, at first it needs to be determined that the neighbors, office colleagues, and other relatives came only to attend or their intention was something else.  And a deed, for which the reward has not yet been decided, how its reward has been transferred to the dead?  It needs to be seen that who was turning the pages of Qur’an pretending to be reciting just to show the world, and who was making mistakes in reading which are not acceptable, etc? And not many these days can properly read the Quran. Only Allah knows the intent and the performance of the deed.  If someone makes errors in the reading of Quran, has the punishment for this been also be transferred? Or following the same logic, can one transfer the punishment of his sins to others? Why not transfer own sins to the account of Abu Jahl or Firoun?

 The question remains ‘is this creed and practice about transferring thawab (the reward) found in the Qur’an and the hadith?

If all these things are examined from the point of view of reality, then it is clear that this fabricated term of “transfer of reward” is rejected by its very literal meaning.  Let us this in the light of a few ahadeeth.

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: ” يَتْبَعُ الْمَيِّتَ ثَلَاثَةٌ، فَيَرْجِعُ اثْنَانِ، وَيَبْقَى وَاحِدٌ: يَتْبَعُهُ أَهْلُهُ، وَمَالُهُ، وَعَمَلُهُ، فَيَرْجِعُ أَهْلُهُ وَمَالُهُ، وَيَبْقَى مَعَهُ عَمَلُهُ

(صحیح بخاری۔کتاب الرقاق۔باب سکرات الموت)

“Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “When carried to his grave, a dead person is followed by three, two of which return (after his burial) and one remains with him: his relative, his property, and his deeds follow him; relatives and his property go back while his deeds remain with him.”

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: إِذَا مَاتَ الْإِنْسَانُ انْقَطَعَ عَمَلُهُ إِلَّا مِنْ ثَلَاثٍ: صَدَقَةٍ جَارِيَةٍ، أَوْ عِلْمٍ يُنْتَفَعُ بِهِ، أَوْ وَلَدٍ صَالِحٍ يَدْعُو لَهُ

(مسلم۔ کتاب الوصیت۔باب ما یلحق الانسان من الثواب بعد وفاته)

“Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “When a man dies, his acts come to an end, but three, (that is) recurring charity, or knowledge (by which people) benefit, or a pious son, who prays for him (for the deceased).”

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَنْ دَعَا إِلَى هُدًى كَانَ لَهُ مِنْ الْأَجْرِ مِثْلُ أُجُورِ مَنْ تَبِعَهُ لَا يَنْقُصُ ذَلِكَ مِنْ أُجُورِهِمْ شَيْئًا وَمَنْ دَعَا إِلَى ضَلَالَةٍ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ الْإِثْمِ مِثْلُ آثَامِ مَنْ تَبِعَهُ لَا يَنْقُصُ ذَلِكَ مِنْ آثَامِهِمْ شَيْئًا ۔

( صحیح مسلم۔کتاب العلم۔باب من سنه حسنه او سيئه)

“Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “He who called (people) to righteousness, there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who called (people) to error, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect.”

From the Qur’anic ayaat mentioned in the previous lines and the ahadeeth mentioned above, it is clear that if the dying person was a true believer, the things for which he will continue to receive the rewards after death are:

  • All the righteous deeds that he himself performed in his life.
  • Sadaqua jariya ‘Ongoing charity:  It means an ongoing goodness such as if a believer, in his lifetime, had built a mosque, a drinking water point, a well, a lodge, an inn or any such public welfare work on non-profit basis for the sake of Allah only. So as long as people continue to benefit from this deed of his, this person will continue to get his reward even after death (because it is not someone else’s deed but his own deed).
  • That knowledge from which people benefit:  If a believer had written something in his life which helped people to correct their beliefs and deeds aligning themselves with the divine guidance. Or he had invited people, his children, relatives closer towards Allah’s real message with his tongue in addition to his pen? Or invited towards pure form of religion free from fabrications (bid’aat) and towards reighteous deeds. Or had introduced them to Islamic teachings, trained them on Islamic lines, had given them knowledge of Qur’an and Hadith, so as long as these people continue to follow what the deceased had said or written or taught, he will continue to receive his reward even after his death (because it was all his own effort).
  • Pious son who prays for him:  If the deceased father or mother had trained children according to the instructions prescribed by Qur’an and Hadith, and attempted to make  children spend their lives becoming true believers and pious, and then if these children pray to Allah for their parents after their death, then the deceased will surely benefit from it.  Other ahaadeeth also prove that children get as much reward for their good deeds as do their believing parents because all their education and training are the result of their own deeds.

It should be borne in mind that all the good deeds, which are accumulated in the account of a believer after his death in the manner described above, nowhere these are mentioned by Allah Ta’ala or the of Allah’s Messenger in the name of “Isal-e-Thawab” or any other similar term. Nor is there any religious practice through which one can donate his own good deeds to his deceased parents.

On the contrary, it has been said that if the children pray the Salat, then the same reward is automatically accumulated in the account of the deceased believing parents.

In the same way, a deceased believer who had established a water well on non-profit basis then he will automatically continue to get the reward as long as people get water from it.  No religious practice has been prescribed for transferring the reward, it happens automatically. Nowhere it is written that after drinking water, one he should pray, commonly known as ‘bakhshna’ to transfer the thawab of that to the deceased.

And in the same way, as long as people continue to receive guidance through a book, the reward will continue to go to its author automatically.

The Shari’ah only states that good deeds of the deceased can benefit from what he actually did himself.  But we should not forget that the prayer of forgiveness for the deceased believer by any believer is also proven by the Qur’an and Hadith.  And remember that Allah has strictly forbidden any kind of dua or supplication of forgiveness for a mushrik, the one who associates anybody or anything with Allah:

مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِيِّ وَ الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْۤا اَنْ يَّسْتَغْفِرُوْا۠ لِلْمُشْرِكِيْنَ۠ وَ لَوْ كَانُوْۤا اُولِيْ قُرْبٰى مِنْۢ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ اَنَّهُمْ اَصْحٰبُ الْجَحِيْمِ

(التوبة: 113)

“It is not for the Prophet and those who have believed to ask forgiveness for the polytheists, even if they were relatives, after it has become clear to them that they are companions of Hellfire.”

Salat al-Mayyit (funeral prayer) is also a prayer for forgiveness, so it is necessary to avoid violating the command of Allah Ta’ala. And do not ask for forgiveness for anyone involved in such fabricated practices of ‘ithal-e-thawab’.  As if this special reward (ie supplication of forgiveness) is only for the believers because they have adorned their lives in obedience to Allah Ta’ala and according to what was prescribed by Qur’an and Hadith. And whenever prayers are offered for forgiveness for the dying believer and if it is accepted by Allah Ta’ala, only then it will benefit the deceased.

It is also important to point out that the practice of ‘fatiha’ by reciting Surah Al-Fatihah, Surah Al-Ikhlas, etc. three times as a prayer for forgiveness at the residence or the grave is a clear bidaat (innovation).  There is no example of such an action by the Prophet himself or the Sahabah appearing in any of the authentic hadith.

Now, insha’Allah, in the next part, we will take a look at who is involved in such activities with devastating result for the common Muslim and how close one could get to hell because of practicing ‘ithal-e-thawab’ and fabricated practice ‘fatiha’ of reciting surah then asking for the forgiveness of the deceased.

I – Who are being followed in this practice?

Among the Shiites, there is a mourning, similar to ‘ithal-e-thawab’ for the deceased which is called “’azadari“.

Among the Hindus, when someone dies, the Pandit is called and he recites ‘Ashlok’.  This is done on the third, tenth, and fortieth days, and then at the end of the year.   They believe that the soul of the deceased is waiting for the feast until Ashlok is recited for the deceased and ‘dan pun’ charity is given.

Unfortunately, in this ummah, this method of delivery of reward has been introduced. In which, when someone dies, people should gather to read the whole Qur’an, its reward be transferred to the dead and food should be prepared to entertain the visitors and mourners. 

II – Who should we be following?

See how Hinduism is being followed leaving the dictates of Qur’an and Hadith. Whereas Allah Ta’ala Says:

لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِيْ رَسُوْلِ اللّٰهِ اُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُوا اللّٰهَ وَ الْيَوْمَ الْاٰخِرَ وَ ذَكَرَ اللّٰهَ كَثِيْرًاؕ

  (الاحزاب:21)

There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Last Day and [who] remembers Allah often.

مَاۤ اٰتٰىكُمُ الرَّسُوْلُ فَخُذُوْهُ١ۗ وَ مَا نَهٰىكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوْا١ۚ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰهَ١ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ شَدِيْدُ الْعِقَابِ

(الحشر:7)

And whatever the Messenger has given you – take it; and what he has forbidden you – refrain from. And fear Allah ; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.

The command of the Lord of the universe is to follow His Messenger, otherwise severe punishment will befall you. Just imagine, we call ourselves ummat Muhammedia. Is the follower of the Prophet () is in fact the one who chants the name of the Prophet but follows the Hindus? Will we be saved from the grip of Allah when we deviate from the Qur’an and Sunnah and follow the practices prescribed by today’s Maulvis and ulema?

III – What would happen on the Day of Qiyama?

Allah Ta’ala says:

يٰۤاَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوْا رَبَّكُمْ وَ اخْشَوْا يَوْمًا لَّا يَجْزِيْ وَالِدٌ عَنْ وَّلَدِهٖ١ٞ وَ لَا مَوْلُوْدٌ هُوَ جَازٍ عَنْ وَّالِدِهٖ شَيْـًٔا

(لقمٰن:33)

O mankind, fear your Lord and fear a Day when no father will avail his son, nor will a son avail his father at all.

That is, on the Day of Resurrection, it will not be the case that a person will say, “Where is the reward for all the Qur’an which I have finished after the death of my father?” Or someone may ask why I was not given the reward that was to be transferred through ‘isal-e-thawab’ to me when I died.

Imagine for a second, how astonishing it is that if a dying person is to be punished for not reciting the Qur’an in his life time, but its punishment will be cancelled just because after his death, his family and friends finished many times the reading of Qur’ans?  Allah Ta’ala says:

ا۟لَّذِيْ خَلَقَ الْمَوْتَ وَ الْحَيٰوةَ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ اَيُّكُمْ اَحْسَنُ عَمَلًا١ؕ

(الملک:2)

[He] who created death and life to test you [as to] which of you is best in deed.

That is, this life is given as a trial to see who among us lives the life of a righteous and who follows the path of disobedience.  And you will be recompensed according to your deeds.  But we have rejected this law of Allah by adopting the belief and practices of transfer of the reward ‘isal-e-thawab’! And as if we have made ourselves believe that saving the dead from torment and admitting him to heaven is now in our control! 

And now we will do pious deeds onbehalf of whosoever we like and let make him enter the Paradise! Is this not a denial of the verses of Allah Ta’ala?

وَ الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْا وَ كَذَّبُوْا بِاٰيٰتِنَاۤ اُولٰٓىِٕكَ اَصْحٰبُ النَّارِ١ۚ هُمْ فِيْهَا خٰلِدُوْنَ

(البقرة :39)

And those who disbelieve and deny Our signs – those will be companions of the Fire; they will abide therein eternally.

Anyway,the result of adopting this belief is to deny the Qur’an and Sunnah and it is by no means proven during the times of the best of the generations. When these things are mentioned in front of maulvis, and they are unable to quote the Qur’an in support of their stance, they immediately refer to their buzurgan-e-deen (revered religious leaders) saying that it is proven by these learned people.

The thing to think about is that the final argument and proof in religion is the Qur’an and Hadith. which contain the verdicts of Allah and His Messenger (ﷺ). Then could their “religious leaders” be more revered than the Companions ( رضی اللہ عنہم اجمعین) about whom Allah Ta’ala Himself has declared His pleasure in the Quran. If we are true Muslims then we must ensure that we follow the Sahaba.

If according to these sectarians, Islam is whatever is the way of their religious leaders, then what was that Islam in which the laws and commands were revealed by Allah Ta’ala fourteen hundred years ago, and in which the Prophet () and companions, following them, never carried out Quran Khwani, never assembled their tribesmen and kin for meals, nor practised the rituals of soyem, daswan and chaleeswan.   

If we really believe that was the real Islam, then which religion do the adherents of “Isal-e-Thawab” belong to today?  Actually every command and action that violently contradicts Qur’an and Sunnah is from taghut (excessively defiant of Allah) and the consequence of following taghut is nothing but the burning fire of Hell.

There is only one way to escape from the Hell fire, namely, strict adhereance to the Sunnah of the Prophet. We must never forget his statement that:

كُلُّ أُمَّتِي يَدْخُلُونَ الجَنَّةَ إِلَّا مَنْ أَبَى قَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، وَمَنْ يَأْبَى  قَالَ: «مَنْ أَطَاعَنِي دَخَلَ الجَنَّةَ   وَمَنْ عَصَانِي فَقَدْ أَبَى

( بخاری ۔کتاب الاعتصام۔ باب الاقتداء بسنن رسول ﷺ )

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “All my followers will enter Paradise except those who refused.” They said, “O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! Who will refuse?” He said, “Whoever obeys me will enter Paradise, and whoever disobeys me is the one who refuses (to enter it).”

IV – Misconceptions of sectarian ulema

After presenting arguments from the Book of Allah regarding the negation of “Isal-e-Thawab”, there is no more need to discuss the fabricated claims on the basis of which this false practice has been spread in the ummah.  

But after our clarification with proof, some questions were raised by different people. Therefore, in order to satisfy them, it is now necessary to discuss the points which have been put forward in writing by the inventors and preachers of this practice.  And because of that, general public has started to become victims of hesitation and confusion.  

This part has been compiled to meet this need so that the truth can be clarified through the criteria of Qur’an and Hadith. All the questions that have been raised by the sectarian ulema, instead of quoting Quran and authentic hadith, refer to some book or commentary in which the transfer of reward of good deeds has been declared permissible and, in their arrogance, attempts have also been made to prove this in the hadiths.

I – Misconceptions spread regarding the Holy Quran

In proof of the invalidity of the doctrine of the ‘Isal-e-thawab’, we have given a clear command of Allah Ta’ala through a few ayats of Surah An-Najm quoted in the pervious part:

اَلَّا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِّزْرَ اُخْرٰىۙ۰۰۳۸وَ اَنْ لَّيْسَ لِلْاِنْسَانِ اِلَّا مَا سَعٰى ۙ۰۰۳۹وَ اَنَّ سَعْيَهٗ سَوْفَ يُرٰى۪۰۰۴۰ثُمَّ يُجْزٰىهُ الْجَزَآءَ الْاَوْفٰى ۙ۰۰۴۱

(النجم:38 تا 41)

“That no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another.And that there is not for man except that [good] for which he strives.And that his effort is going to be seen.”

However, the then President of Darul Uloom Deoband, Mufti Mahmood Al Hassan Gangohi, had issued a fatwa regarding this ayat:

آیت للانسان الا ما سعی کو حضرت ابن عباس فرماتے ہیں کہ والذین اٰمنوا واتبعتھم ذريتهم بايمان الحقنا بهم سے منسوخ ہے ۔”(فتویٰ محمودیہ ۔جلد1۔ صفحہ 43)

Ibn Abbas says that ayat ‘for a human is what he strives for’  has been abrogated by ayat ‘And those who believed and whose descendants followed them in faith – We will join with them their descendants’.(Fatawa Mahmoodiya Vol 1 Page 43)

Likewise, someone has sent us a photocopy of the excerpt from a tafseer which goes as follows:

صحیح قول یہ ہے کہ صحف ابراھیم وموسٰی میں جو لیس للانسان الا ما سعی کا حکم تھا اس سے مراد یہ ہے کہ نماز، روزہ، صدقہ، حج اور تمام نیکیوں کا ثواب صرف کرنے والے کو ملے گا اور دوسرے کو نہیں پہنچے گا ۔لیکن یہ حکم امت موسیٰ و ابراہیم کے لئے مخصوص تھا، امت اسلامیہ مرحومہ کے لئے اس حکم کو منسوخ کر دیا گیا اور آیت والذين امنوا واتبعتهم ذريتهم بايمان الحقنا بهم اسکی ناسخ ہے۔”(تفسیر مظھری اردو جلد یازدھم ۔ صفحہ 178)

The correct view is that in the books of Ibrahim and Mosa (علیہ السلام), the word “lais lillansan al-ma sa’” means that the one who spends his time in prayer, fasting, charity, Hajj and all good deeds will be rewarded only but this command was reserved for the Ummah of Ibrahim and Mosa (علیہ السلام). This command was revoked for the late Ummah of Islam and ayat ‘And those who believed and whose descendants followed them in faith – We will join with them their

The above mentioned commentary was written by Qazi Sanaullah Panipati (d. 1225 AH) and named it “Tafsir Mazhari” after the name of his sufi Shaykh Tariqat Mirza Mazhar Jan Janan Dehlavi. By the way, Qazi Sahib has also acknowledged that the reward for a good deed will be given only to the one who does it and not to the other (this is what we mentioned) but his position is that:

  1. This ruling was specific to the ummah of Ibrahim and Mosa (). The ummah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is an exception.
  2. Although this ayat is present in the Holy Qur’an, its ruling has been abrogated.
  3. اَلْحَقْنَا بِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ is its abrogator.

II – Has Allah Ta’ala ordained different methods for different ummahs?

For the above three explanations, we refer to the Book of Allah:

Allah Ta’ala says:

شَرَعَ لَكُمْ مِّنَ الدِّيْنِ مَا وَصّٰى بِهٖ نُوْحًا وَّ الَّذِيْۤ اَوْحَيْنَاۤ اِلَيْكَ وَ مَا وَصَّيْنَا بِهٖۤ اِبْرٰهِيْمَ وَ مُوْسٰى وَ عِيْسٰۤى اَنْ اَقِيْمُوا الدِّيْنَ وَ لَا تَتَفَرَّقُوْا فِيْهِ

(الشوریٰ :13)

He has ordained for you of religion what He enjoined upon Noah and that which We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what We enjoined upon Ibrahim and Mosa and Isa – to establish the religion and not be divided therein.

The Prophet (ﷺ) said:

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «أَنَا أَوْلَى النَّاسِ بِعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ، فِي الْأُولَى وَالْآخِرَةِ» قَالُوا: كَيْفَ؟ يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ قَالَ: «الْأَنْبِيَاءُ إِخْوَةٌ مِنْ عَلَّاتٍ، وَأُمَّهَاتُهُمْ شَتَّى، وَدِينُهُمْ وَاحِدٌ، فَلَيْسَ بَيْنَنَا نَبِيٌّ»

(صحیح مسلم۔ کتاب الفضائل۔ باب فضائل عیسی علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام )

Allah’s Messenger () said; ‘I am most close to Isa, son of Maryam, among the whole of mankind in this worldly life and the next life’. They said: ‘O, Allah’s Messenger how is it?’  Thereupon he said: “Prophets are brothers in faith, having different mothers. Their religion is, however, one and there is no prophet between us (between I and Isa)”.

From the arguments of the Qur’an and Hadith mentioned above, it is clear that the principles of religion are the same for all the ummahs.  That is, the purpose of creation of all nations, the demand for servitude, the matter of the grave and then the gathering on the Day of Resurrection and then the judgment of punishment and retribution according to their deeds, are all the same.  And that the commands given in the Quran are not new commands but these things were also revealed to the previous nations.

In spite of the clear statement of the Book of Allah, an attempt is made to prove the truth of the words of the sectarian akabireen ‘great ones’. And it is said that Allah had forbidden many things to the children of Israel but they are lawful for this ummah. This kind of excuse creates doubt and suspicion in the hearts of some people but in Sura Ale-Imran (Ayat 93-94), Sura Al-Nisaa (Ayat 160) and Sura Al-An’am (Ayat 146) of the Holy Quran, Allah Ta’ala has mentioned some things which were forbidden to the Children of Israel. And it has been made clear that these things were forbidden to the children of Israel as a punishment for their cruelty and for the crime of hindering the people from the way of Allah.

With reference to the Sabbath, it is said that theirs and ours are separate days of worship, as well as our Shari’ah is separate. The hadith states:

عَنْ اَبِی هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، ‏‏‏‏‏‏أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، ‏‏‏‏‏‏يَقُولُ:‏‏‏‏ “نَحْنُ الْآخِرُونَ السَّابِقُونَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، ‏‏‏‏‏‏بَيْدَ أَنَّهُمْ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِنَا ثُمَّ هَذَا يَوْمُهُمُ الَّذِي فُرِضَ عَلَيْهِمْ، ‏‏‏‏‏‏فَاخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ، ‏‏‏‏‏‏فَهَدَانَا اللَّهُ فَالنَّاسُ لَنَا فِيهِ تَبَعٌ الْيَهُودُ غَدًا وَالنَّصَارَى بَعْدَ غَدٍ”.

( بخاری ، کتاب الجمعہ، باب : فرض الجمعہ )

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said “We are the last (to come amongst the ummahs) but (will be) the foremost on the Day of Resurrection. They were given the Scripture before us and we were given the Quran after them. And this was the day (Friday) about which they differed and Allah gave us the guidance (for that). So tomorrow (i.e. Saturday) is the Jews’ (day), and the day after tomorrow (i.e. Sunday) is the Christians’s.”

That is, Allah Ta’ala had fixed Friday for all ummahs to make special arrangements for worship but the Jews disagreed with Him, and desired a Sabbath, so Allah ordained it for them. 

But later, when they turned away from it, Allah made them suffer the worst torment in this world and made them apes which has been mentioned in Sura Al-Baqara Ayat 65.

III – Has the ruling of this ayat been abrogated?

Allah Ta’ala says:

مَا نَنْسَخْ مِنْ اٰيَةٍ اَوْ نُنْسِهَا نَاْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَاۤ اَوْ مِثْلِهَا١ؕ اَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ اَنَّ اللّٰهَ عَلٰى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيْرٌ

(البقرۃ :106)

We do not abrogate an ayat or cause it to be forgotten except that We bring forth [one] better than it or similar to it. Do you not know that Allah has power over all things?

In this regard, Allah’s rule has become clear that when an ayat is abrogated, an ayat like that or better than that is revealed. As mentioned in Sahih Al-Bukhari, with reference to the fasting ayat of Surah Al-Baqarah in Kitab al-Tafsir, the narration of Salma ibn Aku’ (رضی اللہ عنہ) proves that the Ayat No. 185 is an abrogator of the ayat before it.

When they say that the aforesaid ayat of Surah Al-Najm is abrogated by the ayat of Surah Al-Tur, so what evidence do they have for that? They are saying this only to prove the false beliefs of their buzurg elders, otherwise this ayat is not abrogated at all.  Because long after the death of the Prophet (ﷺ), on the occasion of Umar’s injury and Sohaib’s weeping over him, Ayesha ( رضی اللہ عنہا) had argued from this ayat.  The last words of this long hadith are:

فَلَمَّا أُصِيبَ عُمَرُ دَخَلَ صُهَيْبٌ يَبْكِي،‏‏‏‏ يَقُولُ:‏‏‏‏ وَا أَخَاهُ وَا صَاحِبَاهُ، ‏‏‏‏‏‏فَقَالَ عُمَرُ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ:‏‏‏‏ يَا صُهَيْبُ أَتَبْكِي عَلَيَّ،‏‏‏‏ وَقَدْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ:‏‏‏‏ إِنَّ الْمَيِّتَ يُعَذَّبُ بِبَعْضِ بُكَاءِ أَهْلِهِ عَلَيْهِ. قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا:‏‏‏‏ فَلَمَّا مَاتَ عُمَرُ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لِعَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا،‏‏‏‏ فَقَالَتْ:‏‏‏‏ رَحِمَ اللَّهُ عُمَرَ، ‏‏‏‏‏‏وَاللَّهِ مَا حَدَّثَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَيُعَذِّبُ الْمُؤْمِنَ بِبُكَاءِ أَهْلِهِ عَلَيْهِ وَلَكِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ،‏‏‏‏ قَالَ:‏‏‏‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَيَزِيدُ الْكَافِرَ عَذَابًا بِبُكَاءِ أَهْلِهِ عَلَيْهِ، ‏‏‏‏‏‏وَقَالَتْ:‏‏‏‏ حَسْبُكُمُ الْقُرْآنُ وَلا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرٰى ۔

(بخاری۔کتاب الجنائز ۔باب قول النبی ﷺ یعذب المیت۔۔۔۔)

Then when ‘Umar (رضی اللہ عنہ) was attacked, Suhaib (رضی اللہ عنہ) entered weeping and saying, “Alas for the brother! Alas for the companion!” ‘Umar asked Suhaib, ‘are you crying for me whereas Allah’s messenger had said that the dead would certainly be punished because of the crying of his family for him’. Ibn ‘Abbas رضی اللہ عنہ  said that when ‘Umar died he mentioned that to ‘A’isha and she said, “May Allah have mercy on ‘Umar! I swear by Allah that Allah’s messenger never said that the dead will certainly be punished because of his family’s crying for him; what he said was that Allah will increase the punishment of the infidel because of his family’s crying for him.” She added, “What the Qur’an says is enough for you: ‘No bearer of a burden will bear another’s burden.”

This event occurred about 12 or 13 years after the death of the Prophet () ie at the time when the revelation of the Quran was completed.  The ayat that was to be abrogated and the ayat that was to be revealed was already done, and the Mother of the ummah, the great being in whose hujra the Quran was revealed, is reciting this ayat and saying that this is the command of Allah. That is, this ayat is applicable, about which these mountains of knowledge are claiming that it is abrogated!

IV –  Is the ayat with اَلْحَقْنَا بِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ is its abrogator?

Following the above explanation, there is no need to discuss this issue further, however, this topic is being discussed so that there should be no doubt in the hearts of the people as to which ayat it was and what was stated in it, may be this ithal-e-thawab was being proved by it!

Allah Ta’ala says in the aforementioned ayat:

 وَ الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا وَ اتَّبَعَتْهُمْ ذُرِّيَّتُهُمْ بِاِيْمَانٍ اَلْحَقْنَا بِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَ مَاۤ اَلَتْنٰهُمْ مِّنْ عَمَلِهِمْ مِّنْ شَيْءٍ١ؕ كُلُّ امْرِئٍۭ بِمَا كَسَبَ رَهِيْنٌ

(الطور :21)

And those who believed and whose descendants followed them in faith – We will join with them their descendants, and We will not deprive them of anything of their deeds. Every person, for what he earned, is retained.

In the Ruku of the above ayat of Surah Al-Tur, Allah is mentioning His blessings which will be given to the believers in Paradise. And in the same vein, the Lord of the Universe is referring to their offspring, who followed them in faith, that is they are good Muslims. But because of their shortcomings in deeds, they will be admitted to the lower paradises. Then Allah will admit them to the higher levels of Paradise to be reunited with their parents.

All this is merely a special favour of Allah, not a result of anyone’s reward, as the following ayaat show:

فَاَمَّا الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ فَيُوَفِّيْهِمْ اُجُوْرَهُمْ وَ يَزِيْدُهُمْ مِّنْ فَضْلِهٖ

(النساء :173)

And as for those who believed and did righteous deeds, He will give them in full their rewards and grant them extra from His favours.

اِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ يَتْلُوْنَ كِتٰبَ اللّٰهِ وَ اَقَامُوا الصَّلٰوةَ وَ اَنْفَقُوْا مِمَّا رَزَقْنٰهُمْ سِرًّا وَّ عَلَانِيَةً يَّرْجُوْنَ تِجَارَةً لَّنْ تَبُوْرَۙ۰۰۲۹

لِيُوَفِّيَهُمْ اُجُوْرَهُمْ وَ يَزِيْدَهُمْ مِّنْ فَضْلِهٖ١ؕ اِنَّهٗ غَفُوْرٌ شَكُوْرٌ۰۰۳۰

(فاطر:29-30)

Indeed, those who recite the Book of Allah and establish prayer and spend [in His cause] out of what We have provided them, secretly and publicly, [can] expect a profit that will never perish – That He may give them in full their rewards and increase for them of His bounty. Indeed, He is Forgiving and Appreciative.

The last part of the ayat of Surah Al-Tur كُلُّ امْرِئٍۭ بِمَا كَسَبَ رَهِيْنٌ (Every person, for what he earned, is retained) from which the ayat of Surah Al-Najm is being claimed to be abrogated, rejects all their arguments. Because the same thing is being stated in it which they are claiming to be abrogated. Is it possible that the subject of both abrogator and abrogated ayaat is the same?

In response to our previous statement, only one question was raised with reference to the Quran, the truth of which has been clarified from the Book of Allah. It is a great audacity to find an ayat contrary to one’s self-made false belief and to declare it abrogated and that the unanimous religion of all the Prophets (ﷺ) is proven different from each other. May Allah save us from it!

III – Fatwas by Mufti Azam Pakistan

In the ‘Fatawa Darul Ulum Deoband’ which gives the fatwas (religious verdicts) by the Grand Mufti Pakistan, Mufti Muhammed Shafi, following are the replies given by him to the questions regarding ‘ithal-e-thawab’.

With respect to ‘fateha khawani’ for Hussain bin Ali, he calls it a bid’at if it restricted to the ten days of Muharram. But otherwise, it is ‘jaaiz’ (religiously permissible) and carries ‘thawab-e-azeem (great reward)’. (Question 57, Page 174)

In response to Question 300 Page 437, he says:

‘Ithal-e-thawab’ can be performed for dead as well as living. (Page 437)

The amount of reward which reaches the living is the same as that for the dead. In this regard, living and dead are the same. (Page 438)

The ‘thawab’ for the living will be delivered at the time of his burial if that has been the intention of the person who is trying to transfer the thawab. He adds ‘But Ibn Qayyim does not consider this method of isal to be jaaiz.’  (Page 438)

If someone wishes to transfer the reward of ‘Quran’ completed by him to his mother, then she will get full reward. However, it is better to include transfer of thawab to our Prophet (ﷺ) so that, through his courtesy, others can also receive the reward. (Question 299 Page 437)

 The above replies by the grand mufti himself or his office, reflect the position of Darul-ulum-Deoband as they have published it under their name and as ‘imdad-ul-mufteen’ (support and reference to those who give fatwas).

The idea of isal-e-thawab was to help a deceased Muslim so that shortages in his good deeds account are met by others sending their reward to him.  First it was applicable to dead, now one can see that living persons are included in the recipient. Worse still they are promoting concept of transferring their reward to the Prophet (ﷺ) and Hussain ()! What is the grand mufti trying to implying indirectly that the Prophet (ﷺ) and Hussain (رضی اللہ عنہ) need their ‘thawab’

Any way, it was the intention to show that those who invented and spread this belief about transfer of reward could not prove it from the Quran nor it is possible.  Because this belief is basically against the Qur’an and Hadith. The belief of a Muslim should be proved by the Book of Allah in all circumstances, because this is the great Qur’an, the practical example of which the Prophet (ﷺ) has made a beacon for us in the form of hadiths. Therefore, it is impossible for the Qur’an to refute something and that thing can be proved by a hadith. But these sectarians try to prove this false belief from the hadiths, so it is necessary to review these hadiths as well.

Previously , we had answered their objections with reference to our evidence from the Quran and in this part we are presenting a unanimous view of the Quran and Hadith on the doubts and suspicions that these sectarians have been spreading regarding the ahadith.

I – Proving ‘isal-e-thawab’ by ahadeeth of the Prophet (ﷺ)

Some books such as Fatawa Mahmoodiyah, Tafsir Mazhari, Tafheem-ul-Quran etc, have given some ahadith as proofs for this ritual.  Those who insist on the transfer of the reward to the dead ask sarcastically about these ahadith that are all these ahadith false!   And if these are authentic ahadith, will a person who denies the hadith continue to be a Muslim! 

The fact is that it is not possible that an authentic (saheeh) hadith contradicts any of the Quranic injunctions, because Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) was sent to offer explanation of the Quran and show a practical implementation and not to contradict it.  May Allah protect us, the second thing is unthinkable.

وَ اَنْزَلْنَاۤ اِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ اِلَيْهِمْ وَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُوْنَ

(النحل:44)

[We sent them] with clear proofs and written ordinances. And We revealed to you the message that you may make clear to the people what was sent down to them and that they might give a thought.

Every action of the Prophet (ﷺ) was based on the Quran. He was its practical interpretation. The Quran was revealed to the heart of the Prophet ().  He himself acted on it fully and preached it to the ummah in full and this was the command of our Lord.

يٰۤاَيُّهَا الرَّسُوْلُ بَلِّغْ مَاۤ اُنْزِلَ اِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَّبِّكَ …

(المائدہ:67)

O Messenger, convey that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, …

The Prophet (ﷺ) preached every command revealed by Allah and on its completion, on the occasion of his first and the last Haj, he got it testified to this fact from all those present. He also urged to convey these things to others who were not present. 

Allah Ta’ala has arranged for us to read the verbal, practical and tacitly approved hadith of the Prophet (ﷺ) for our guidance.  Therefore, it is impossible for any action of the Prophet to be against any of the principles and rules of Quran.

The principle that Allah has stated in the Quran is:

اَلَّا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِّزْرَ اُخْرٰىۙ۰۰۳۸وَ اَنْ لَّيْسَ لِلْاِنْسَانِ اِلَّا مَا سَعٰى ۙ۰۰۳۹وَ اَنَّ سَعْيَهٗ سَوْفَ يُرٰى۪۰۰۴۰ثُمَّ يُجْزٰىهُ الْجَزَآءَ الْاَوْفٰى ۙ۰۰۴۱

(النجم:38 تا 41)

That no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another.And that there is not for man except that [good] for which he strives.And that his effort is going to be seen.Then he will be recompensed for it with the fullest recompense.

The same principle was stated by the Prophet ():

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: ” يَتْبَعُ الْمَيِّتَ ثَلَاثَةٌ، فَيَرْجِعُ اثْنَانِ، وَيَبْقَى وَاحِدٌ: يَتْبَعُهُ أَهْلُهُ، وَمَالُهُ، وَعَمَلُهُ، فَيَرْجِعُ أَهْلُهُ وَمَالُهُ، وَيَبْقَى مَعَهُ عَمَلُهُ

(صحیح بخاری۔کتاب الرقاق۔باب سکرات الموت)

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “When carried to his grave, a dead person is followed by three; two of which return (after his burial) and one remains with him: his relative, his property, and his deeds follow him; relatives and his property go back while his deeds remain with him.”

This hadith explains that the property of the deceased and his family cannot be of any use in his next life. The only beneficial things to him are his own deeds.

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: إِذَا مَاتَ الْإِنْسَانُ انْقَطَعَ عَمَلُهُ إِلَّا مِنْ ثَلَاثٍ: صَدَقَةٍ جَارِيَةٍ، أَوْ عِلْمٍ يُنْتَفَعُ بِهِ، أَوْ وَلَدٍ صَالِحٍ يَدْعُو لَهُ

(مسلم۔ کتاب الوصیت۔باب ما یلحق الانسان من الثواب بعد وفاته)

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “When a man dies, his acts come to an end, but three, (that is) recurring charity, or knowledge (by which people) benefit, or a pious son, who prays for him (for the deceased).”

This matter, mentioned in the Quran and Hadith, will not only become a source of reward after death, but also during his lifetime his reward begins to accumulate in his record of deeds. The following hadith further explains it:

عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، ‏‏‏‏‏‏عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ:‏‏‏‏ “مَا مِنْ مُسْلِمٍ غَرَسَ غَرْسًا فَأَكَلَ مِنْهُ إِنْسَانٌ أَوْ دَابَّةٌ إِلَّا كَانَ لَهُ صَدَقَةٌ”

(صحیح بخاری ۔کتاب الادب۔ باب رحمۃ الناس۔۔۔)

The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “If any Muslim plants a plant and a human being or an animal eats of it, he will be rewarded as if he had given that much in charity.”

That is, a Muslim planted a plant, that plant became a strong tree, brought flowers and fruits, people and animal benefited from it like the goat which ate from its leaves, then the reward was accumulated in the account of that person. Whereas a goat cannot make dua for its transfer (bakhshna) after eating the leaves.

The above mentioned ahadith describe the good deeds of man which he did in his life and still remain after his death.  But remember that this matter is not limited to good deeds but if someone dies while he laid the groundwork for something wrong. For example he turned people away from the Book of Allah and led them to the religion of his particular sect, then as long as people continue to follow his version of beliefs and deeds, punishment will continue to be written for him whether he is alive or dead.

All these rewards and punishments, that are being meted out to the dead, do not require any ritual of “ithal-e-thawab” but will be done automatically according to the law of Allah as stated in this hadith.

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، ‏‏‏‏‏‏قَالَ:‏‏‏‏ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ:‏‏‏‏ لَا تُقْتَلُ نَفْسٌ ظُلْمًا إِلَّا كَانَ عَلَى ابْنِ آدَمَ الْأَوَّلِ كِفْلٌ مِنْ دَمِهَا لِأَنَّهُ أَوَّلُ مَنْ سَنَّ الْقَتْلَ

(صحیح بخاری ۔کتاب الانبیاء ۔باب قول اللہ تعالیٰ و اذ قال ربک۔۔۔)

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Whenever a person is murdered tyrannically, there is a share from the burden of the crime on the son of Adam for he was the first to start the tradition of murdering.”

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَنْ دَعَا إِلَى هُدًى كَانَ لَهُ مِنْ الْأَجْرِ مِثْلُ أُجُورِ مَنْ تَبِعَهُ لَا يَنْقُصُ ذَلِكَ مِنْ أُجُورِهِمْ شَيْئًا وَمَنْ دَعَا إِلَى ضَلَالَةٍ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ الْإِثْمِ مِثْلُ آثَامِ مَنْ تَبِعَهُ لَا يَنْقُصُ ذَلِكَ مِنْ آثَامِهِمْ شَيْئًا۔

(صحیح مسلم ۔کتاب العلم۔ باب من سن سنة حسنة او سيئة)

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, ‘He who called (people) to righteousness, there would be reward (assured) for him like the rewards of those who adhered to it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who called (people) to misguidance, he shall have to carry (the burden) of its sin, like those who committed it, without their sins being diminished in any respect.

عَنْ جَرِيرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَالَ جَاءَ نَاسٌ مِنْ الْأَعْرَابِ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَيْهِمْ الصُّوفُ فَرَأَى سُوءَ حَالِهِمْ قَدْ أَصَابَتْهُمْ حَاجَةٌ فَحَثَّ النَّاسَ عَلَى الصَّدَقَةِ فَأَبْطَئُوا عَنْهُ حَتَّى رُئِيَ ذَلِكَ فِي وَجْهِهِ قَالَ ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَجُلًا مِنْ الْأَنْصَارِ جَاءَ بِصُرَّةٍ مِنْ وَرِقٍ ثُمَّ جَاءَ آخَرُ ثُمَّ تَتَابَعُوا حَتَّى عُرِفَ السُّرُورُ فِي وَجْهِهِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَنْ سَنَّ فِي الْإِسْلَامِ سُنَّةً حَسَنَةً فَعُمِلَ بِهَا بَعْدَهُ كُتِبَ لَهُ مِثْلُ أَجْرِ مَنْ عَمِلَ بِهَا وَلَا يَنْقُصُ مِنْ أُجُورِهِمْ شَيْءٌ وَمَنْ سَنَّ فِي الْإِسْلَامِ سُنَّةً سَيِّئَةً فَعُمِلَ بِهَا بَعْدَهُ كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِ مِثْلُ وِزْرِ مَنْ عَمِلَ بِهَا وَلَا يَنْقُصُ مِنْ أَوْزَارِهِمْ شَيْءٌ

(صحیح مسلم ۔کتاب العلم۔ باب من سن سنة حسنة او سيئة)

Jarir b. Abdullah reported that some desert Arabs clad in woollen clothes came to Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ). He saw them in sad plight as they had been hard pressed by need. He exhorted people to give charity, but they showed some reluctance until (signs) of anger could be seen on his face. Then a person from the Ansar came with a purse containing silver. Then came another person and then other persons followed them in succession until signs of happiness could be seen on his face. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)  said:

He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their’s being diminished in any respect.

Read all these ahadeeth carefully. All of them are interpreting this command of the Quran that no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another, and man gets what he strives for.  It is noteworthy that today those who have adopted the belief of transfer they talk of transfer of only reward, not punishment for bad deeds.  According to this belief, when people do good deeds, they can reward someone else and make him admit to the paradise but if they can increase somebody else’s reward, then why should they not commit evil deeds and pass them on to their enemy and make him enter Hell? Or at least increase his punishment a little !

Let us now turn to the ahadith that are presented to prove this false belief.  These ahadith are presented in different forms of worship. Therefore, they are discussed under the topic of each worship.

II – Ahadith presented with reference to Salat

The following narrations are presented for the proof of the belief in the delivery of the reward to others and it is said that the reward can be given to another person by performing the prayer.

Abu Hurayrah ( رضی اللہ عنہ) said,

“Who is the one who intends to recite two or four rak’ahs in the mosque of Ashaar and say that they are for Abu Hurayrah?”

(Sunan Abi Dawood, Kitab al-Mulahim, Bab fi Zikr Basra)

This is how the hadith scholars describe Ibrahim ibn Saleh ibn Dirham, one of the narrators of this hadith. 

Bukhari says that no one follows his narration.

Aqeeli says that Ibrahim and his father are not famous in the hadith narration and this narration is not protected. 

Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani says that Dar al-Qatani called him weak.

(Tahdheeb al-Tahdheeb, Vol 1, Page 111)

Whatever was the the authenticity of this hadith, is now open to you. But just consider the content of the hadith that there is a living person who commands salat for himself and these people are using it as an argument for the reward of the dead!

Secondly, is there any indication in the Quran and Hadith that people can perform salat on behalf of one another? Not at all.  So can any deed deviating from the Shari’ah be expected from such a great companion?  The following narration expresses the belief of the Companions in this regard. Ibn Umar () was asked if anyone could fast or pray on behalf of someone else. He said:

لَا يُصَلِّي أَحَدٌ عَنْ أَحَدٍ، وَلَا يَصُومُ أَحَدٌ عَنْ أَحَدٍ

(موطا امام مالک ۔کتاب الصوم ۔باب النذر فی الصیام)

None of you should fast or pray on behalf of anyone else.

By now, you surely are aware of the status of the hadith of salat trying to prove the delivery of the reward.

III – Ahadith presented with reference to Sadaqat (charity)

With regard to charity, some hadiths are presented to prove the ‘ithal-e-thawab’:

A man said to the Prophet (ﷺ),

“My mother died suddenly, and I think that if she could speak, she would have given in charity. May I give in charity on her behalf?” He said, “Yes! Give in charity on her behalf.”

 (Sahih Al-Bokhari, Book of Wills, Chapter li man yustahabbu yatawaffa  ..)

Abdullah ibn Abbas narrated that the mother of Saad bin Ubada died in his absence. He said,

“O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! My mother died in my absence; will it be of any benefit for her if I give sadaqa on her behalf?” The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Yes,”  Saad said, “I make you a witness that I give my garden called Al Makhraf in charity on her behalf.”

(Sahih Al-Bokhari, Book of Wills, Chapter Iz qala ardhi au bustani  ..)

This tradition has been mentioned in different ways in Kitab of Al-Wasaya, Kitab Al-Nazar and Kitab Al-Iman etc. of Sahih Sittah, the six canonical hadith books. There is mention of charity in some and vows in others. If all these are combined then we come to know that this incident is related to the same Sahabi i.e. Saad bin Ubadah. However, some words in the text have differed from different narrators. Obviously it is clear that Saad ibn Ubadah’s mother died only once and he came to him and asked the Prophet (ﷺ) him that question. It is known from the traditions of the most trustworthy narrators that this question was related to the vow of the mother and the Prophet (ﷺ) commanded it to be fulfilled.

عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا: أَنَّ سَعْدَ بْنَ عُبَادَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ اسْتَفْتَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَقَالَ: إِنَّ أُمِّي مَاتَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا نَذْرٌ، فَقَالَ: «اقْضِهِ عَنْهَا»

( بخاری، کتاب الوصایا، بَابُ مَا يُسْتَحَبُّ لِمَنْ تُوُفِّيَ فُجَاءَةً أَنْ يَتَصَدَّقُوا عَنْهُ، وَقَضَاءِ النُّذُورِ عَنِ المَيِّتِ )

On the authority of Ibn Abbas ( رضی اللہ عنہما): Saad bin Ubada consulted Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) saying, “My mother died and she had an unfulfilled vow.” The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Fulfill it on her behalf.”

All the traditions mentioned above prove that his mother’s intention was to give charity or fulfill a vow. A vow is a promise made by heart or tongue which is a covenant made with Allah that if I achieve something, I will do such and such thing in the way of Allah. And in case of achievement of the intention, fulfilling this promise becomes the right of Allah upon the servant. It should also be noted that the issue here is that of mother and real son, so it should not be used as an argument for general transfer of reward. Nor did the Companions start giving alms on behalf of the deceased parents taking a lead from this incident.  It has been stated before that Allah is the most deserving of fulfilling His promise.  In these ahadith, where can you find the prevalent ‘ithal-e-thawab’?

On the contrary, it is a special case that the Prophet (ﷺ) was asked for his approval for deceased mother to do what was obligatory upon her in her life. The Prophet (ﷺ) did not give a general order: Give alms and bakhsh ‘offering’ it to your mother.  The point is, it is the parent’s obligatory deed which is being fulfilled by a son or daughter.

Today, based on this hadith, the sectarians have made it common practice for all kinds of charity on behalf of the deceased. However, even the wealth of the deceased cannot benefit him if he had no intention of spending it in the way of Allah, as the Quran explains:

وَ اَنْفِقُوْا مِنْ مَّا رَزَقْنٰكُمْ مِّنْ قَبْلِ اَنْ يَّاْتِيَ اَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ فَيَقُوْلَ رَبِّ لَوْ لَاۤ اَخَّرْتَنِيْۤ اِلٰۤى اَجَلٍ قَرِيْبٍ١ۙ فَاَصَّدَّقَ وَ اَكُنْ مِّنَ الصّٰلِحِيْنَ

(المنٰفقون:10)

And spend [in the way of Allah] from what We have provided you before death approaches one of you and he says, “My Lord, if only You would delay me for a brief term so I would give charity and be among the righteous.”

That is, it is not acceptable for him to spend his wealth after death, rather, it will be accepted what he intended to spend in the way of Allah.  And this is exactly in accordance with the ayat that man gets what he tried. It is the same as we also found in the hadith mentioned earlier that three things go with the deceased; his family, his property and his deeds; two things, that are his family and his property, come back and his deeds stay with him.

The point of presenting all this is that today those, who fabricate and propagate the self-made belief in the ‘ithal-e-thawab’ the transfer of rewards, have tried to take support of these ahadith. In their false pride, they think that only these sectarian ulema have understood these ahadith! As if the Companions did not understand the intention and content described in these ahadith.  That is why they did not recite the Quran, nor did they gather and feed the family and friends, nor did they do the soyem, third day, or the chaleeswan, fortieth day rituals. But we make it easy for the deceased, not matter how much he was away from the obligatory salat, etc to enter Paradise by arranging these things with great ‘religious’ spirit!

If only the Companions had understood this easy path, they would not have taken such a difficult path in the way of Allah. (May Allah protect us)

Previously, we have explained the misinformation spread by the sectarians regarding prayers and alms in favour of this fabricated creed. The same topic is still going on and we will now explain the ahadtih related to Hajj, Umrah and Sacrificial salughtering to see if there is any semblance of ‘Ithal-e-Thawab’.

I –Ahadith regarding Hajj and Umrah as evidence

A hadith of Sahih Muslim regarding Hajj is presented as evidence in support of the practice of ‘ithal-e-thawab’:

It is narrated on the authority of Ibn Abbas (رضی اللہ عنہھما) that a woman from Banu Khushm said:

O Allah’s Messenger! The command of Allah Ta’ala, regarding the duty of Hajj on His servants, has found my father at a time when he cannot sit on any means of transportation. Should I perform Hajj on his behalf? The Prophet (ﷺ) said: Yes.

 Similarly, a tradition of Sunan Al-Nasa’i is also presented about a questioner who was the elder son of a man:

The Prophet (ﷺ) asked him, “Are you his eldest son?” He replied: ‘Yes’, the Prophet said, ‘What if your father owes someone money and you pay it off?’ He replied: ‘Yes’. The prophet (ﷺ) said: “Perform Hajj on his behalf”.

In the third narration, a case of an old weak mother and her son is described.

Dear Readers,

The concept of creed  of Isaal-e-Thawab is that the living should do some good deed and in their false understanding donate ‘bakhsh’ its reward to the deceased.  But in the ahadith which are presented as evidence in support of this false belief, all the people from whom permission is being sought are not dead but alive.  When Hajj was declared obligatory, they were not physically fit to perform it. They tried not to be deprived of this reward in any way. That is why their children were asking about performing Hajj on their behalf. The Prophet (ﷺ) was giving permission to perform Hajj on behalf of their living parents, but only after obtaining surety that he truly and sincerely represents his father. 

But, speaking with regret, these ahadith concerning the living have been applied to the self-made belief of the reward for the dead!

Another narration is given with reference to Abdullah ibn Abbas (رضی اللہ عنہما) with reference to the Book of Al-Nuzur wa Al-Iman.

A woman from the tribe of Jahina came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and said that my mother had made a vow of Hajj but she could not perform it and she died then should I perform Hajj on her behalf? The Prophet (ﷺ) said: ‘Yes, perform Hajj on her behalf. If your mother had a debt, would you not have paid it’. The right of Allah Ta’ala deserves much more to be paid off. 

In another hadith, the Prophet (ﷺ) commanded a person to fulfill the vow that his sister had made for Hajj. And he said that if you are able to pay off the debt on her, then Allah has more right for paying off His debt on him.

There is no mention in any of the narrations presented to justify this innovation that when one’s relative had died, the Prophet (ﷺ) allowed Hajj or Umra with the purpose of transferring the reward ‘ithal-e-thawab’ of Hajj.  Permission for Hajj-e-badal (Hajj on behalf of someone else) was given only considering the disability of an aspirant hajji and elsewhere for fulfilling the vows made to Allah.

Also keep in mind that this facility is limited to the real children. Further, there is no authentic hadith that says that a person had performed Hajj or Umrah for a living or dead person who is not the parent and that the Prophet (ﷺ) or his companions knew it to be correct. The reward of Hajj is only for him who desires it and had the intention to do it, as this hadith explains.

There is a narration by Ibn Abbas ( رضی اللہ عنہما) in Sahih Al-Muslim’s Kitab Al-Hajj that:

عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَقِيَ رَكْبًا بِالرَّوْحَاءِ، فَقَالَ: «مان الْقَوْمُ؟» قَالُوا: الْمُسْلِمُونَ، فَقَالُوا: مَنْ أَنْتَ؟ قَالَ: «رَسُولُ اللهِ»، فَرَفَعَتْ إِلَيْهِ امْرَأَةٌ صَبِيًّا، فَقَالَتْ: أَلِهَذَا حَجٌّ؟ قَالَ: «نَعَمْ، وَلَكِ أَجْرٌ»

(صحیح المسلم۔ کتاب الحج۔ باب صحة حج الصبی و اجر من حج به)

Ibn Abbas (رضی اللہ عنہما) reported that Allah’s Messenger met some riders at al-Rauha and asked, ‘who are they’. They replied; ‘Muslims’. They said: ‘Who are you?’ He said: ‘(I am) Allah’s Messenger’.  A woman (then) lifted up a boy towards him and said: Is there (credit of) the Hajj for him ? Thereupon he said: ‘Yes, and you will have a reward’.

This statement of the Prophet () confirmed the law of Allah Ta’ala that “for man is what he strives for”.

A small boy does not yet know the value of the reward of Hajj but the mother is trying to fulfill the command of Allah and get the reward. And she brought the boy with her so that he also performs Hajj and get its reward. But the Prophet (ﷺ) ruled that the reward is for the woman who has made all this effort.

A person, even though he had good financial status in the world, never thought about Hajj, and he was busy earning this world, busy in earning money, but after death, if someone else performs Hajj and Umrah on his behalf, it cannot be beneficial for him because he never had the intention and desire for it.

A narration is also quoted from Sunan Ibn Majah:

It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas ( رضی اللہ عنہما) that Allah’s Messenger heard a man saying:

“Labbaik ‘an Shubrumah (Here I am (O Allah) on behalf of Shubrumah.”  Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “Who is Shubrumah?” He said: “A relative of mine.” He said: “Have you ever performed Hajj before?” He said: “No.” He said: “Then make this for yourself, then perform Hajj on behalf of Shubrumah.”

(Sunan Ibn Majah, Book of Rituals, Chapter Hajj on behalf of a dead person)

The narrator, Saeed ibn Abi Uruba, had suffered confusion at the end of his life and his narrations had become suspicious. Besides, he was also known as a mudallis one who intentionally hides defect in his narration.

 (Tahdheeb Al-Tahdheeb Vol 4 Page 58)

Even if this narration is accepted as authentic, it only proves that if one performs Hajj on behalf of someone, he should perform his own Hajj first. And again, it is not known that this person who was performing Hajj on someone else’s behalf, was it the will of a dead person or his vow?

II – Ahadith regarding sacrifice as evidence

While presenting as evidence a hadith brought by Muslim, Kitab al-Adhahi (Sacrifice), they seek to justify the ‘Ithal-e-thawab’.  The hadith is as follows:

It is narrated on the authority of Ayesha (رضی اللہ عنہا) that the Prophet (ﷺ) ordered to bring a horned ram whose legs, abdomen and eyes are black. So such a ram was brought so that the Prophet could sacrifice it. Then the Prophet (ﷺ) said to Aisha (رضی اللہ عنہا): ‘Bring a knife, then sharpen it on the stone’.  She said that, ‘this is what I did’. Then the Prophet (ﷺ) took the knife and grabbed the ram and laid it down and said: ‘I slaughter in the name of Allah, O Allah! Accept it on behalf of Muhammed, the family of Muhammed and the ummah of Muhammed.’ Then he slaughtered it.

In other narrations for the same event, mention is made of two rams and one mentions slaughtering in eid prayer area.  It has been narrated in the narration of Sunan Abi Dawud to say these words while slaughtering;

“It is from the people of my ummah who cannot afford to sacrifice.”

Sacrificing on behalf of one’s ummah is a special act of the Prophet (ﷺ). This is not a normal case. The Companions have not made sacrifices on behalf of the deceased. Some of the deeds of the Prophet are special to him, not for the general ummah. This act of the Prophet () shows his great compassion and love for his ummah because he was like a father to the Muslims and had more rights over the believers than their own lives, as Allah Ta’ala says:

اَلنَّبِيُّ اَوْلٰى بِالْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ مِنْ اَنْفُسِهِمْ وَ اَزْوَاجُهٗۤ اُمَّهٰتُهُمْ  …

(الاحزاب: 6)

The Prophet has a greater claim on the believers than they have on themselves, and his wives are their mothers …

In this verse, Allah Ta’ala states: ‘O you who believe! Muhammed’s status is as that of your father and his wives are your mothers’. He is more concerned about your lives than you are about saving yourselves from the fire of Hell and praying for you more than you do.  The words of the Prophet (ﷺ) in the ahadith quoted above testify to the fact that he is praying that ‘O Lord, accept the sacrifice on behalf of all of them, in which he first took his own name. How can this hadith be a proof for their self-made belief because the one who is doing it, he is praying for his own forgiveness? Whereas the belief of ‘isal-e-thawab’ is someone’s deed but then he ‘donates’ (bakhshna) his reward to someone who is already dead.

Then he said: ‘On behalf of the family of Muhammed’, that is, on behalf of his family; this prayer is offered for the living not dead.

Finally, he said, ‘on behalf of the Ummah of Muhammed’. The ummah includes:

  • those who believed in responding to the call of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ), but by the time this prayer was asked, they had died.
  • those who were alive at that time as the Companions.
  • those people who have been enlightened by the faith in the last fourteen centuries.
  • those who have pure faith today and hold fast to the sunnah of the Prophet (ﷺ) and act accordingly.
  • And all the human beings who will be born till the Day of Resurrection, who accept the word of Allah and follow it, and are the followers of the Prophet (ﷺ).

This is a huge number of Muslims including dead, living and all those who will come till the last day!

So, are all these people included in ‘ithal-e-thawab’? Is there a reward for those who are not yet born?

The fact is that the incident described in this hadith is a special virtue of the Prophet (ﷺ).

Similarly, it is narrated that Ayesha (رضی اللہ عنہا) said: ‘We were in Mina and the meat was sent to us that the Prophet (ﷺ) had sacrificed on behalf of his wives’. How can the belief in ‘transfer of reward’ be proved by this? This was the occasion of Hajj and the wives of the Prophet (ﷺ) were with him. They did not slaughter the sacrificial animals with their own hands but the Prophet (ﷺ) slaughtered on their behalf and sent the meat. As even today women do not slaughter animals on the occasion of Hajj but their mahrams (accompanying men) sacrifice on their behalf.

And this is not only the case for Hajj but it is also predominantly prevalent in our homes. When men are slaughtering the animals, they do not say that the reward of this slaughtering be transferred to their families. But these sectarian ulema began to smell the ‘ithal-e-thawab’ in the sacrifices made on behalf of our families.

There is a hadith of Tirmidhi that Ali (رضی اللہ عنہ) always sacrificed two rams; one on behalf of the Prophet and the other one for himself. When some people inquired about this practice, he said: ‘That the Prophet (ﷺ) commanded me, so I will never leave it’.

The famous ‘jarh wa ta’deel’ (hadith criticism and praise) book Mizan-ul-Aitdal, Volume 4, Page 515 states that one of the narrators of this hadith, Abu Al-Hasna, is unknown

Abu Hatim says about Hanish Ibn Al-Mu’tamar, the second narrator of this hadith, that he is righteous, but I have not seen the hadith scholars quoting him as evidence.

Al-Nasai says he is not a strong narrator.

Bukhari says that the narrators object to his narrations.

Ibn Hibban says that he is not taken as a final proof because he narrates some things from Ali ( رضی اللہ عنہ) which are not in line with the hadith from trustworthy narrators.

Bukhari has mentioned his other narration in his book of weak narrators.

Book Mizan-ul-Aitdal, Volume 1, Page 219/220 state that the narrator of this hadith, from Shareek ibn Abdullah, is Abu Al-Hasna and he is unique in narrating it from him. (That is, no other trustworthy narrator says such a thing).

Ibn Hajar says that he was a man of excessive delusions. He has narrated from Ali ( رضی اللہ عنہ) some things which are not in line with the hadith of trustworthy narrators, so much so that he is counted among the people whose narration cannot be used as evidence.

Abu Ahmad al-Hakim says that he is not a strong narrator according to the hadith experts.  Aqeeli, al-Saaji, Ibn al-Jarud, and Abu al-Arab al-Sakli have mentioned him in weak narrators. Ibn Hazm has declared him as of degraded reliability and worthless.

((Tahdheeb Al-Tahdheeb Vol 3 Page 51-52)

Another narration of Tirmidhi is presented as evidence in support of ‘ithal-e-thawab’ that states:

Aisha (رضی اللہ عنہا) says: ‘I have never been so jealous of any of the wives of the Prophet (ﷺ) as Khadija (رضی اللہ عنہا), and I do not know what would happen to me if I found her.  The Prophet (ﷺ) used to miss her a lot and slaughter goat and send gifts to the friends of Khadijah after searching them.’

Againhow come these sectarians got the smell of ‘ithal-e-thawab’ in this hadith!

In this narration, it is only stated that the Prophet (ﷺ) had great love and respect for Khadijah (رضی اللہ عنہا) which is expressed in such a way that he used to mention her and whenever he slaughtered a goat, he would send its meat exclusively to her friends.

Where is it stated that the Prophet (ﷺ) used to slaughter goats for transferring its reward ‘ithal’ to her?

These akabireen ‘great ones’ of these sects know the Qur’an and Hadith very well, but the emphasis is on proving the fabricated belief of their sects by any means.  Whom they are deceiving, Allah? his servants? or just themselves and their disciples!

In fact, when a belief and its practice could not be proven by the Qur’an and authentic ahadith, then believing in the word of Allah, they should have tried to save themselves from the fire of Hell, and then rectify this grave mistake which was being made since long in the past.

But it so happened that instead of correcting the mistake, every effort was made to justify the actions and sayings of the deceased ‘great scholars’ which were contrary to the Qur’an and Hadith. Even if the irrational arguments had to be fabricated by making the weak ahadith as their ‘final proof’!

It has become clear from the Qur’an and Hadith that this belief and practice is a fabrication against the Qur’an and sunnah. But the misguided sectarian scholars offer different explanations to their followers in which dua-e-maghfirat (the prayer for forgiveness of a deceased) is also used as an argument. So, this part is dedicated to its explanation.

I – Quranic Ayaat regarding دعاءِ مغفرت (Prayer for Forgiveness)

An unsuccessful attempt is made to prove the doctrine of ‘ithal-e-thawab’ by justifying the ‘dua-e-maghfirat’ prayer for forgiveness of a dead person and a counter question is asked that didn’t the Prophet () pray for forgiveness. If one’s deeds are of no use to anyone, then how will you explain the hadith that the torment of the deceased is reduced or his rank is raised because of the ‘dua-e-maghfirat’ prayer of forgiveness. In the Qur’an, where Allah Ta’ala gave the believers the glad news of reward for their good deeds, it was also stated that He will forgive the sins committed by them as much as He wills.

وَ اِنِّيْ لَغَفَّارٌ لِّمَنْ تَابَ وَ اٰمَنَ وَ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا ثُمَّ اهْتَدٰى

(طه-82)

But indeed, I am the Perpetual Forgiver of whoever repents and believes and does righteousness and then (continues him) in guidance.

فَالَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ لَهُمْ مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَّ رِزْقٌ كَرِيْمٌ

 (الحج-50)

And those who have believed and done righteous deeds – for them is forgiveness and noble provision.

اِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ بِالْغَيْبِ لَهُمْ مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَّ اَجْرٌ كَبِيْرٌ

(الملك-12)

Indeed, those who fear their Lord unseen, will have forgiveness and great reward.

فَاعْلَمْ اَنَّهٗ لَاۤ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا اللّٰهُ وَ اسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنْۢبِكَ وَ لِلْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ۠ وَ الْمُؤْمِنٰتِ١ؕ وَ اللّٰهُ يَعْلَمُ مُتَقَلَّبَكُمْ وَ مَثْوٰىكُمْ

(محمد-19)

So, know [O Muhammad], that there is no god except Allah and ask forgiveness for your sin and for the believing men and believing women. And Allah knows of your movement and your resting place.

وَ الَّذِيْنَ جَآءُوْ مِنْۢ بَعْدِهِمْ يَقُوْلُوْنَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَ لِاِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِيْنَ سَبَقُوْنَا بِالْاِيْمَانِ وَ لَا تَجْعَلْ فِيْ قُلُوْبِنَا غِلًّا لِّلَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا رَبَّنَاۤ اِنَّكَ رَءُوْفٌ رَّحِيْمٌ

(الحشر-10)

And [there is a share for] those who came after them, saying, “Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith and put not in our hearts [any] resentment toward those who have believed. Our Lord, indeed You are Kind and Merciful.”

That is, it is Allah’s command and method of worship that one should seek forgiveness for one’s own sins by considering Allah Ta’ala as the Forgiver and for other believing men and women. The same thing is stated in the hadith that when a believer prays for other believers, it reaches every righteous person whether he is on earth or between earth and heaven. (Sahih Al-Bukhari and Al-Muslim)

Forgiveness is actually the forgiveness of sins and the ‘dua-e-maghfirat’ means the prayer for the forgiveness of sins. Acceptance of this dua depends on the will of Allah Ta’ala. If He wills, the deceased will benefit from it, otherwise He will reward only the one who prays. How does this prove the prevailing belief in the ‘ithal-e-thawab’? Because according to this fabricated belief, our deeds are our earnings, but we can give their reward to whomever we want, there is no condition of Allah’s acceptance in it! That means the reward will be transferred irrespective of Allah’s approval of the deed as first step or condition. How can one be sure that his good deeds are being rewarded by Allah or not? It remains a possibility that Allah may not approve the reward for that good deed for the reason best known to Him.  Then how can we say with surety that our reward is confirmed and it should be given to so and so.  

It is also said that dua-e-maghfiratis also an act of a man. When it can be beneficial then why can’t our other actions be beneficial? In this regard, it is explained that we are obliged and bound only by the teachings of the shari’ah. There is no place in shari’ah for applying our intellect to obtain excuses, arguments and justification when a binding and clear instruction has been declared. Allah has clearly ordained:

It is not for a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter, that they should [thereafter] have any choice about their affair. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger has certainly strayed into clear error.

So, when the Qur’an and Sunnah prove that only the ‘dua-e-maghfirat’ is beneficial, then how can we use this logic that “If it (dua) is beneficial then other deeds (finishing Qur’an, etc performed at the house of the deceased) are also beneficial to the deceased”. 

According to the ahadith, the one who observes i’tikaaf also gets the reward of daily deeds. It is also proven that those, who go on a journey or get sick, also get the reward of normal routine. Whoever fixes a mujahid’s (warrior) warfighting equipment and takes care of his house in his absence, gets the same reward.

So, what do they say now, if no action has been done by someone in these cases, then how did he get the reward?  The reward was given in view of his intention, sincerity and submission to Allah’s pleasure. Whereas in the rituals of ‘ithal-e-thawab’, the intention, humility and submission of deceased people who are being given the reward of other’s deeds, is not taken in to account at all.

Some people thought that the transferring the reward to a deceased is proven by ahadith, so whoever denies it, is a ‘munkir al hadith’ denier of hadith. And the one who denies the ahadith cannot remain a Muslim, therefore those who deny the ‘ithal-e-thawab’ are excluded from Islam.

Here we have tried our best to present to you the unanimous belief of the Qur’an and Hadith with references so that the way in which this false belief is proved in the name of “Hadith” becomes clear.

Both things have come before you. On one side is the religion of Allah and on the other side is what is before you in the form of fabrications. قد تبین الرشد من الغی!

II – Other arguments regarding دعاءِ مغفرت Prayer for Forgiveness

Moving further in a vicious attempt to prove the ‘ithal-e-thawab’, a few more religious deeds are presented as evidence. 

It is narrated from Ali ( رضی اللہ عنہ) that:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: ‘When you pass through a graveyard, recite Surah Al-Ikhlas eleven times and donate ‘bakhsh’ its reward to them (dead) then you will be rewarded according to the number of dead there’.

This fabricated hadith is presented in connection with the delivering the reward to the dead, although, if you read it carefully, the reward is not for the dead but for the reciter of Surah Al-Ikhlas.

The author of the book “Behishti Zaiwar” has written in the chapter of this book “Statement of Mawlood (birth of the Prophet) Sharif in Rabi-ul-Awwal or any other time”:

And if it is aimed to reward the blessed soul of the Prophet (ﷺ) with something, then (you can achieve it by) make a poor eat the food or simply giving him the food.

He has written in another chapter “Shab-e-Barat Ka Halwa” (The sweet for middle night of Sha’baan):

“So, if you donate something to the dead on this date, whether by reciting the Qur’an shareef or by feeding others food or simply donating (bakhshna) the duas, then this practice is in accordance with the Sunnah.”

The fact is that no such thing is proven by Sunnah at all. This categoric statement is an absolute white lie for public consumption.

The Prophet (ﷺ) said that:

‘The purpose of going to the graveyard is to create feeling of disliking for the world and to remind oneself of the Hereafter’.

(Sunan Ibn Majah and Sunan Abi Dawood, Book of Funerals, Chapters ‘what is mentioned about visiting the graves’; Sunan Al-Nasai, Book of Funerals, Visit of the grave of a mushrik)

The reminding of death is evident from the dua prescribed for visiting the graveyards:

السَّلَامُ عَلٰی أَهْلَ الدِّيَارِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمِينَ وَإِنَّا إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ بِکُمْ لَلَاحِقُونَ نَسْأَلُ لَنَا وَلَكُمْ الْعَافِيَةَ۔

(صحیح مسلم۔ کتاب الجنائز )

” Peace be upon the inhabitants from the houses of the believers and Muslims, and in sha Allah, surely we shall join you. I beg of Allah well-being for us and for you.”

This ‘dua’ prayer of the graveyard is for the dead as well as for the reciters themselves.  These deeds are proven by the authentic ahadith. The prevailing methods of “Fatiha” (reciting sura al-fatiha and others to award them to the dead) and “Khatam Sharif” (finishing Qur’an in one sitting), etc. are self-made by the people for which there is no evidence from the Sunnah of the Prophet (ﷺ) and the Companions. Their status is nothing but ‘innovation and misguidance’.

To say that it is the Sunnah of the Prophet (ﷺ) to prepare and distribute halwa (sweet) on the night of Barat, to recite the Qur’an and to transfer (bakhshna) to the dead is like putting allegations on the Prophet (ﷺ).  استغفرالله May Allah forgive us.  What the Prophet () did not command us nor it is proven by deeds, could that be termed as his sunnah as they have done, let alone the fabrication of that night! 

Earlier in this eassy each and every question regarding the belief in ‘ithal-e-thawab’ the delivery of reward to the dead, has been answered from the Qur’an and Hadith. Let us now talk about the ‘personally devised’ arguments which Maududi Sb has tried to prove this ‘false’ belief by stating in his Tafheem-ul-Quran Volume V.

I – Arguments derived by personal reasoning

In addition to making the ahadith ‘conditionally’ valid, horses of intellect are also been raced around in this invalid field. And some personal reasoning is also exploited. It is appropriate to analyze such claims based on reasoning from Qur’an and sunnah.

It is said in order to prove the authenticity of the belief and practices of ‘ithal-e-thawab’ that:

“The proof for this is that the way a person can ask his employer to pay his wages to a certain person instead of him, then he can do good deeds and then pray to Allah Ta’ala to give his reward to such and such person.”(Tafheem-ul-Quran Vol 5 Page 216)

In many other books it has been written that “Isal-e-Thawab” is just the thing that a person does one thing and pass its reward to another. It is possible in worldly affairs that you may give your wages to another or make someone else receive your wage. But it is not possible in the law of Allah to transfer the reward of one’s deeds to another. Allah Ta’ala says:

لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللّٰهُ نَفْسًا اِلَّا وُسْعَهَا١ؕ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَ عَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ

 (البقرہ: 286)

Allah does not charge a soul except [with that within] its capacity. It will have [the consequence of] what [good] it has gained, and it will bear [the consequence of] what [evil] it has earned.

ثُمَّ تُوَفّٰى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَ هُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُوْنَ

(البقرہ :281)

Then every soul will be compensated for what it earned, and they will not be treated unjustly.

هَلْ تُجْزَوْنَ اِلَّا بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْسِبُوْنَ

(یونس :52)

Are you being recompensed except for what you used to earn?

اِنْ اَحْسَنْتُمْ اَحْسَنْتُمْ لِاَنْفُسِكُمْ١۫ وَ اِنْ اَسَاْتُمْ فَلَهَا

(بنی: اسرائیل 7)

If you do good, you do good for yourselves; and if you do evil, [you do it] to yourselves.

فَالْيَوْمَ لَا تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْـًٔا وَّ لَا تُجْزَوْنَ اِلَّا مَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُوْنَ

(یٰسٓ :54)

So today no soul will be wronged at all, and you will not be recompensed except for what you used to do.

مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلِنَفْسِهٖ وَ مَنْ اَسَآءَ فَعَلَيْهَا١ؕ وَ مَا رَبُّكَ بِظَلَّامٍ لِّلْعَبِيْدِ

(حم السجدہ :46)

Whoever does righteousness – it is for his [own] soul; and whoever does evil [does so] against it. And your Lord is not ever unjust to [His] servants.

From the ayaat above, Allah’s law is clear that the one who does a good deed, he will be rewarded. The scourge of evil will be on the one who does it.  And it is unjust in the sight of Allah that one performs a good deed but someone else is rewarded.

Can anyone believe after the word of Allah Ta’ala that rewards of our deeds can be passed on to someone else? We are desperate to transfer our reward to others but do we have any confirmation in the first place that our deeds have been accepted by Allah? The following hadith makes it clear:

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: رُبَّ صَائِمٍ لَيْسَ لَهُ مِنْ صِيَامِهِ إِلَّا الْجُوعُ، وَرُبَّ قَائِمٍ لَيْسَ لَهُ مِنْ قِيَامِهِ إِلَّا السَّهَرُ

( سنن ابن ماجہ ، کتاب الصیام ، بَابُ مَا جَاءَ فِي الْغِيبَةِ وَالرَّفَثِ لِلصَّائِمِ )

There are many people who fast and get nothing from their fast except hunger, and there are many who pray and get nothing from their prayer but a sleepless night.

They are thinking in their understanding that they are getting the reward of fasting and waking up but in fact, their pious deeds are not being accepted by Allah Ta’ala for one reason or the other.

A true believer in the Qur’an and Hadith who is solving the paper of the Hereafter by considering the world as a mere testing ground, how can he deprive himself of this reward by giving his good deeds to someone else? While his faith is that these good deeds of mine are the capital of my hereafter. If one still keeps doing the practice of ‘ithal-e-thawab’, then his belief in the Hereafter is different. 

One of the reasons for being distant from the real commands of Allah Ta’ala in the life of so-called Muslim today is probably overconfidence in the belief in self-imposed ‘transfer of reward’. He also expects that after his death, his family will also transfer their rewards to him to save him from Hell fire! Hence this practice has gained strength in our societies.

It is as if he was saying by body language, “When I die and the angels will come to punish me because I did not read the Qur’an and did not act according to it.  So, I will stop them by saying why you have come to punish me. Just wait a little bit. You don’t know how rich I was in the world, how big a community and family I had.  You have come to punish me for not reading the Qur’an, not acting according to it, not giving alms! So, O angels, don’t hurry, hardly any time has passed since you took my soul out of my body, my family has just started crying, the relatives and friends have started gathering. Our molvi is about to come after gathering the children from his madrassa, not one but many Qur’ans will be finished for me, food will be cooked in my name, there will be charity. Then this series of favours will be prolonged, soyem the third day rituals, then beeswan the twentieth day etc, Thursdays will be celebrated, chaleeswan the fortieth day rituals will be performed on grand scale.”

“They will do everything on my behalf that I never imagined and never planned to do. Despite my wealth, I never thought of Hajj but now Hajj will be performed on my behalf and then the yearly barsi anniversary will be celebrated.”

“If you have come to torture me today, just see I will be shortly receiving so much rewards transferred to me by my family and friends that you yourself will be forced to make me enter the Paradise. Today my name is on the list of hellfire but soon my account will be so rich that my name will be in the list of the highest paradise Jannat-ul-Firdous. Because in the past I was the only one who could act good deeds, but today there are innumerable ones who are doing good deeds on my behalf. Those who deserve hell are the poor ones behind whom there are no one to transfer their reward. He did not die leaving so much wealth that finishing Qur’an after Qur’an by molvis could be afforded. Their reward is stuck where it was when he died, but look how my record is swelling day by day? He died as the one who earned Hell, but look at the miracle of the ‘isal-e-thawab’ that I am sitting in the best Paradise Jannat-ul-firdous.”

It gives shivers in our bodies by what a daring attempt has been made to reject the law of Allah! Just see how cunningly has this tyrannical belief of ‘isal-e-thawab’ denied the system of Allah Ta’ala; He says:

ا۟لَّذِيْ خَلَقَ الْمَوْتَ وَ الْحَيٰوةَ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ اَيُّكُمْ اَحْسَنُ عَمَلًا

(الملک2)

[He] who created death and life to test you [as to] which of you is best in deed

وَ خَلَقَ اللّٰهُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الْاَرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ وَ لِتُجْزٰى كُلُّ نَفْسٍۭ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ وَ هُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُوْنَ

(الجاثیہ: 22)

And Allah created the heavens and earth in truth and so that every soul may be recompensed for what it has earned, and they will not be wronged.

That is, the creation of life and death, the creation of the heavens and the earth is under a plan. This world is a testing ground, this period of life is a period in which human beings are to be tested to decide the final destination. The eternal reward and punishment in the final destination depends upon the performance, success and failure in this world.

Man will be entitled to whatever he earns, but this belief of transferring the credit to a dead person is an attempt to overturn Allah’s just system of reward and punishment! Allah’s system awards a place in heaven because of his own deeds and the other system awards the heaven because of other’s deeds!

II – Maududi Sb giving arguments against his own argument

Earlier Maududi Sahib had written that one can give his reward to another but now he writes against his own writing:

“The reward will be given to the one who acts and his reward cannot be given to anyone else but his prize can be given to someone else.”

What a contradiction it is! First, he gives one belief and then gives another belief. However, he then explains it by giving this example:

As if a person tries to master the art of wrestling by exercising; the strength and skill that comes out of it is specific to his person which cannot be transferred to another individual.  Similarly, if he is an employee of a court and a salary is fixed for him as a wrestler, then he will also get it, it will not be given to anyone else. However, he may request that prize money to be given to his teacher, his parents or other benefactors on his behalf.

(Tafheem-ul-Quran Vol 5 Page 217)

In some sects, there is the same belief about the delivery of the reward, which the writer of Tafheem-ul-Quran had been emphasizing before, that the deceased can be transferred reward of any kind of action. But some sectarians believe that the obligatory acts of worship are exclusively for the man who performs it and that their reward is non-transferrable. But the reward of other good deeds can be transferred.

Let us examine the abovementioned theory.

We must first understand the meaning of “reward” and “prize.” “Reward” refers to the reward for a good deed like salary and wages, and “prize” for being rewarded due to the pleasure for doing that deed in the best possible way. The ruling of the Qur’an and Hadith in this regard is as follows:

فَاَمَّا الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ فَيُوَفِّيْهِمْ اُجُوْرَهُمْ وَ يَزِيْدُهُمْ مِّنْ فَضْلِهٖ

(النساء:173)

And as for those who believed and did righteous deeds, He will give them in full their rewards and grant them extra from His bounty.

اِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ يَتْلُوْنَ كِتٰبَ اللّٰهِ وَ اَقَامُوا الصَّلٰوةَ وَ اَنْفَقُوْا مِمَّا رَزَقْنٰهُمْ سِرًّا وَّ عَلَانِيَةً يَّرْجُوْنَ تِجَارَةً لَّنْ تَبُوْرَۙ oلِيُوَفِّيَهُمْ اُجُوْرَهُمْ وَ يَزِيْدَهُمْ مِّنْ فَضْلِهٖ١ؕ اِنَّهٗ غَفُوْرٌ شَكُوْرٌ

( فاطر : 29-30)

Indeed, those who recite the Book of Allah and establish prayer and spend [in His cause] out of what We have provided them, secretly and publicly, [can] expect a profit that will never perish – That He may give them in full their rewards and increase for them of His bounty. Indeed, He is All-Forgiving and All-Appreciative.

These ayaat make it clear that those who believe and do good deeds will be fully rewarded for their good deeds. But at the same time, the extra reward, due to sincerity and devotion etc. in these good deeds will still be for the same person and not for anyone else.

And here is a hadith which goes like this:

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ:‏‏‏‏  مَنْ صَلَّى عَلَيَّ صَلَاةً وَاحِدَةً صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ عَشْرَ صَلَوَاتٍ وَحُطَّتْ عَنْهُ عَشْرُ خَطِيئَاتٍ وَرُفِعَتْ لَهُ عَشْرُ دَرَجَاتٍ

(سنن نسائی۔ کتاب الافتتاح۔ الفضل فی الصلوۃ علی النبی ﷺ)

Allah’s Messenger said, “If anyone invokes a blessing on me once, Allah will grant him ten blessings, ten sins will be remitted from him, and he will be raised ten levels.”

The above hadith also gives a complete explanation of the fact that whoever prays for blessings for the Prophet (), he will get his reward (i.e. ten virtues) and also prize (i.e. forgiveness of ten sins). And extra bonus prize will be raising of the levels by ten levels. So, it turns out that the reason for giving both the “reward” and the “prize” is the action of the doer himself not of anyone else.

Therefore, it has been proved that the status of the philosophy of “reward and prize” offered in the justification of ithal-e-thawab is simply false. Will a believer in the Hereafter, protecting his every deed, seek more rewards from his Lord or will he, showing ingratitude, request to transfer his hard-earned rewards?

When a good Muslim finds his belief or practice is against the Qur’an and Hadith, he should straight away admit his mistake and seek forgiveness from Allah. But what happens is that various logics are devised to prove the false belief and every effort is made to prove it by any means.

With reference to the Qur’an and Hadith, it is now quite clear that the so called “personal reasoning and inferences” for this fabricated belief are in fact masterpieces of “mental aberration” and lack of mental acumen.

Other arguments in this regard, in which an attempt has been made to prove the transfer of reward through the example of money order, are merely deceptive audacity which is a waste of time to discuss.

III – Qur’an Khawani – Finishing Qur’an multiple times for the dead

The ritual of “Qur’an recitation” is considered to be the most essential of the current rituals of ‘ithal-e-thawab’. Wherever there is a death, it is the first thing to be arranged. It has been so much ritualized that it seems to be a part of religion. There is no doubt in anyone’s mind that it is wrong. Rather, everyone is convinced of its virtue, which can be gauged from the continuity and repetition of this practice.  For this, there are regular parties whose job is to recite the Qur’an and they also take regular wages for it. Special single para or juz of Qur’an printed in large size are available for quickly finishing Qur’an khawani. In some places, maulvis have turned it into a regular business. Orders are booked with them and they immediately fill the transport with the students of the madrassa to the required venue.  And within no time they finish the required number of Qur’ans and after eating and drinking they collect their fee and go to the next booking place.

The Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet (ﷺ) in order to make people aware of the guidance from Allah.  The Prophet (ﷺ) taught it to the Sahabah ( رضی اللہ عنہم اجمعین), told them how to recite it, and explained the virtues of its various Surahs and verses. All these things are present in the books of Hadith which are not being narrated here due to their length.

The Companions used to act upon the teaching of the Qur’an. They used to get up at midnight and recite it in the prayer of tahajjud with great humility. But there is no hadith that Prophet (ﷺ) or any of his Companions recited the Qur’an in this manner.

Therefore, there is no doubt that it being an innovation in the religion and all the innovations in the religion are misguidance and all the misguidance will go to the Hell fire as informed by the Prophet (ﷺ).

It is a pity that when these mountains of knowledge, the sectarian ulema, are told about this innovation, instead of repenting over this innovation out of fear of Allah, they start defending it. Instead of regretting their actions, they insist on persistence over it.  It is said ‘triumphantly’ that the Qur’an had not been compiled at that time in the form to be read and recited.

It is a pity that these people are so stuck in this quagmire of innovations that they do not understand even such a simple thing. That the Qur’an was revealed to the heart of the Prophet, and a large number of the Companions were memorizers of the Qur’an. Was it necessary to read the Qur’an by looking at the pieces of paper? Couldn’t they recite from their hearts for Qur’an khawani? Even if their logic is accepted, then this ritual should have become popular at the time of Abu Bakr and Uthman ( رضی اللہ عنہ), the Qur’an was collected in paper form and distributed everywhere. Not only in this period but also in the later period this ritual of Qur’an recitation does not exist.

It is as if they are trying to prove that the Companions did not understand the virtue the way we have understood, as if knowledge of the ulema is more than the knowledge of the Companions! They now know more about the virtues of reading the Qur’an. The Companions could not understand the virtues of reciting the Qur’an for a deceased person’s benefit. From their perspective, the Companions were deprived of this virtue! May Allah protect us.

They should not forget, no matter how good a religious ritual may be, no matter how pleasing it may seem, but if it is not in accordance with the words and deeds of the Prophet (ﷺ) and his Companions, then that is a path to the punishment from Allah.

When these maulvis do not have any reply to this, they start counter-allegation saying, “these people are calling recitation of Qur’an as an innovation bid’at in the religion.”

Of course, reciting the Qur’an is very rewarding, but reciting the Qur’an in the same way as we have been taught by the Prophet (ﷺ). For example, the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Man is very close to his Lord in the prostration.” You can see clearly the virtue of prostration! Now, if in one rak’a someone starts doing this virtuous prostration three or four times, what would you say to him? Can this person’s salat be accepted?

And if this virtuous prostration is performed at sunrise, zawal, and sunset, then why is it forbidden haram? Thus, it is learned that the acceptance of a good deed is conditional on doing it in accordance with the manner prescribed by the Prophet (ﷺ) otherwise the same virtuous deed invites the wrath of Allah.

It is also said that one should adopt the belief and practice according to the sect to which one belongs and should not force one’s belief on others. But don’t forget the Qur’an has declared sectarianism as disbelief and shirk. A believer and a Muslim cannot be affiliated with any sect in any way. This is the order of the Prophet (ﷺ) narrated in authentic ahadith. Moreover, we have not discussed the doctrine of the ‘ithal-e-thawab’ from the books of any sect, but directly from the Qur’an and Hadith which are the basis of our Shari’ah (on which all these sects claim to believe). All references have been made to both of them. Now whoever believes in the Book of Allah will believe in it and whoever is obedient to the arrogant sectarian ulema will cling to the fatwas of his sect’s muftis.

On the Day of Resurrection, the entire Ummah will be judged from the Qur’an and Hadith. Sunni, Shia, Ahl-e-Hadith, Deobandi and Barelvi will not be accounted for separately according to the books of their sects. Therefore, instead of seeking guidance from these books, people should start worrying about their fate. And just read the Qur’an and Hadith, understand their content, make a pure belief according to them and act according to them, because Allah Ta’ala has described it as a guide for human beings for all times to come.

III – Conclusion

The purpose of this long write-up regarding the doctrine of ‘isal-e-thawab’ is not to disgrace or humiliate anyone. Rather, it is to explain how far this so-called Muslim of today has strayed from the commands of his Lord.

Today, he has wrapped the Book of Guidance revealed by Allah in beautiful covers and placed it on the highest racks in the house especially made for it; this is like the Jews who had put Allah’s book behind their back not to follow it.

That is why today he has become a slave to the laws made by others. How is it possible for a believer to insist on a belief that does not exist in the Qur’an and Hadith? Those who insist upon new things that have been adopted today considering them as an important practice of Islam, which religion are they following?

Ahadith of the Prophet (ﷺ) do not prove that neither he nor his companions ever did the following rituals on the death of any of his family and friends for ‘ithal-e-thawab’ and inviting mercy on the deceased:

  • recitation of the Qur’an, burning of incense sticks (agarbatti),
  • recitation of various phrases on date-stones, grams, etc.,
  • walking along the funeral, shouting ‘kalima shahadat’,
  • after burial, raising hands and offer collective prayers and recite Fatiha,
  • laying floral wreaths and flowers over the grave,
  • arranging food for the visiting mourners,
  • Qul Shareef’, reciting the surah starting with word ‘qul’,
  • ceremonies of Soyem, daswan, chaleeswan and yearly anniversary,
  • gathering relatives, friends and loved ones on Thursdays, to recite various ‘wazeefas’ to transfer the reward to the deceased, etc.

If they did not do these things, then who is this ummah following in adopting these innovations? For the sake of Allah, just think what is the result of deviation from Qur’an and Hadith? Is this the end we long for?

Finally, may Allah Ta’ala help us to read, understand and follow the Qur’an, and keep the followers of the Prophet (ﷺ) on the true and the real religion of Islam. O Lord, we love both the personalities and the pattern of your Messenger and the Companions. Only their way of life is a beacon for us. May Allah guide us on their path, bring our end on practicing Islam and then unite us with them.